Use Of Fire By Native Americans

For 10,000 to 20,000 years, Indians used fire to influence forest composition and structure and the extent of grasslands in North America (Pyne 1982, Cronon 1983, M. Williams 1989, Delcourt et al. 1993). Indian fires created a mosaic of plant communities quite different from today's landscape. Early explorers and settlers observed a complex, quilt-like pattern of old-growth, open oak, and pine woodlands, oak and pine savannas, prairies, barrens, bald ridges, oak openings, meadows, grasslands,...

Diseases Affecting Multiple Habitat Components at Landscape Scales

Oak Wilt and oak decline are two diseases affecting forest composition, structure, and acorn production at landscape scales. The broad scale of these diseases is largely due to the alteration of native oak forest by human activities or to influences that yielded new oak forests with different characteristics that made them more prone to these diseases. Oak wilt is a systemic vascular wilt disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum Bretz. Trees in forest stands become infected when the...

Diseases Insects and Parasitic Plants Affecting Acorn Production Potential

This group of agents produces more or less direct effects on acorn production potential, by affecting reproductive structures or acorns themselves. Exceptions are leafy mistletoes (Phoradendron spp.) and spring defoliating insects, which have more indirect effects. Some foliage and twig pathogens have the potential, under epidemic conditions, to affect wildlife habitat by reducing acorn production potential. In white oaks, this effect may last for only one crop if the outbreak lasts one year...