The reviews by Menzel and Muller (1996) and Giurfa (2003) analyze learning and cognition in the honeybee at multiple levels, from cellular to behavioral. Micheau and Riedel (1999) discuss the intracellular signaling pathways that are the best understood and most conserved phylogenetically. Their review concentrates on PKA, PKC, and other Ca2+-dependent kinases, and roles are proposed for each of these kinase families in different stages of learning and memory formation. The multiple, complex interactions among kinases are also discussed as a means of fine-tuning memory formation and information processing. Dubnau and Tully (1998) and Waddell and Quinn (2001) describe gene expression and the involvement of gene products in learning-induced changes in neural functioning in mutant and transgenic Drosophila. Best et al. (2001) describe recent research on hippocampal place cells, including the effects of experience on place cell activity and computational modeling ofthe role of these cells in orientation and spatial memory. Written by a major researcher and theorist on the functions ofthe frontal cortex, the book by Fuster
(1997) is comprehensive, with data on many mammalian species, including humans and nonhuman primates. It presents a theory of the function of the frontal lobe, including the prefrontal cortex, in working memory, timing, attention, motor control, affect, and planning. The book covers comparative anatomy, neurotransmission, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, and recent imaging studies.
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