Aquaponics Projects For Beginners

Aquaponics 4 You

Aquaponics is a complete beginners guide to learn how to harness the power of both fish and plants. The waste products that fish produce are food for the plants, so that your plants can grow twice as fast as normal plants. Not only will the grow faster, they will also produce 10 times more than the average garden will ever dream of. And you don't ever have to weed! This is a 100% organic way to grow your own food. The Aquaponics guide comes in PDF format and gives you access to easy step-by-step videos to learn to set up your own garden. The book gives you the tools to build a small home garden or a multi-acre farming operation. What you do with the information is up to you! Not only does the complete instruction course come with everything you need to get started, it includes six extra books that cover organic gardening, flower gardening, organic farming, worm farms, cooking organically, and eating healthy. Don't waste your time on a small garden that needs weeding and constant care. Use Aquaponics to grow your best garden every. Continue reading...

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Microalgae for Aquaculture

A number of microalgae are used in aquaculture, for example, Isochrysis, Pavlova (Prymnesiophyceae), Monodus and Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae), and Tetraselmis (Prasinophyceae). Live microalgae play a key role in aquaculture, being the feed source for the larvae of mollusks, crustaceans, fish hatchings, or rotifers, which are used as fish feed. The biomass has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Various types of closed photobioreactors are used for their cultivation polyethylene bags, cylinders, flat panels, horizontal tubu lar systems, and annular columns. Microalgal products for aquaculture represent one of the biggest global markets. The dried biomass is also used as a feed supplement in pellet form for adult fish.

Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture

The recently described concept of IMTA provides an alternative approach for sustainable aquaculture. Intensive culture of fish or shrimp is now being practiced in many places as integrated units with seaweeds and mollusk culture. In these IMTA systems, the extractive components (seaweed and mollusks) extract their nutrients from the effluents of the fed components (fish or shrimp). Solar energy drives the productivity of these IMTA systems. This approach, besides being a form of balanced ecosystem management, prevents potential environmental impacts from fed aquaculture. It also provides exciting new opportunities for valuable crops of seaweeds. The seaweed IMTA component may include species of Porphyra, Laminaria, Undaria, and Gracilaria.

Aquaculture Waste Production

Wastes produced by aquaculture are diverse, ranging from particulate organic and dissolved inorganic wastes to chemicals and drugs used to control pathogens. Aquaculture wastes vary in quantity and quality depending principally on the species being cultured, the culture system, and the technology in use. They also depend on feed quality and management practices at the aquaculture sites. The effects and ecological consequences of the massive introduction of organic and inorganic material into the environments depend on the hydrodynamic and abiotic conditions and the overall resilience capacity of the host ecosystem. Intensive mariculture, principally those that require an exogenous input of energy, produce uneaten feed and feces, dissolved nutrients as products of excretion, parti-culate organic compounds, and several types of chemicals. Pathogens and escapees should also be included as waste components. In this article, we will concentrate on parti-culate organic and dissolved...


Until relatively recently, man has acted only as a hunter-gatherer in exploiting the oceans. Now, with fish stocks falling and fisheries failing, there is an upsurge in interest in farming the oceans. Freshwater aquaculture already plays a very important part and some estimates suggest that one in five fish that end up on the dinner plate is a farmed fish. Increases in total aquaculture production (freshwater and marine) have nearly doubled in the past 10 years with most of this due to freshwater culture.

Preface to the second English edition

Fresh water covers only a tiny part of the Earth's surface. Nevertheless, its importance for drinking water, irrigation, fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism is beyond dispute. Limnology, the science of inland waters, provides a necessary scientific basis for the management of lakes and rivers. There is, however, a bigger and more fundamental role for limnology. Even the earliest limnologists believed that they had an important message for ecology. This continuing belief is highlighted by article titles like the lake as a microcosm (Forbes 1877) and copepodology for the ornithologist (Hutchinson 1951). Lakes, in particular, have been considered as little theaters where the great play of the ecological interactions, interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, could be studied more easily than anywhere else. Lakes can serve as those little theaters (microcosms sensu Forbes) because they are relatively easy to sample, because they have clear-cut boundaries...

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

The environment from terrestrial applications of bioso-lids or wastewater, biosolid-derived products, leachates from landfills, discharges from on-site septic or aerobic treatment systems, aquaculture practices (e.g., net pens), or transport from intensively reared agricultural areas (e.g., confined animal feeding operations) to aquatic systems. Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals are excreted as a combination of metabolites and parent compounds or are directly discarded into wastewater as unused medications. Although many pharmaceuticals are primarily excreted as metabolites, microbial activity in a WWTP may cleave conjugated metabolites, potentially resulting in reactivation to parent compounds prior to discharge to a receiving ecosystem. Mixtures and metabolites present challenges to understanding exposure and effects, as a number of PPCP classes (e.g., antibiotics) also are expected to co-occur in complex mixtures distributed between solid and aqueous components of the...

Single Species Ecotoxicity

Antibiotics generally appear to be far less toxic to invertebrates and vertebrates than to aquatic microorganisms or plants. Cladocerans may be most sensitive to tetracyclines. For the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for survival during a 48 h tetracycline exposure period was 340 mgl 1 while the EC50 for reproduction was 44.8 . Cladocerans appear to be much less sensitive to erythromycin with reported acute EC50s for immobilization or mortality ranging from 200 to 400 mgl-1. In addition, a series of toxicity tests involving ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enro-floxacin, flumequine, and clinafloxacin, all indicated very limited mortality for the cladoceran D. magna and the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, at concentrations as high as 10mgl In another study, the reported ciprofloxacin NOECs for D. magna and the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio, were 60 and 100 mgl-1, respectively. For many aquatic vertebrates, such as...

Apparent competition See competition

Aquaculture The culture of fish, shellfish, or underwater plants in natural or controlled freshwater or marine environments. Aquaculture may take place in enclosed shallow coastal areas, in cages at or below the surface of the open sea, in freshwater ponds, or in large tanks. It is a commercially important method of producing seafood such as mussels, oysters, clams, lobsters, crawfish, and shrimps, and fish such as salmon, tilapia, and catfish. Seaweeds may be grown in similar situations. The method of growing plants in nutrient solution instead of soil is called hydroponics.

A practical application of tree biomechanics in ecology

Both eco-engineering and ground bio-engineering fall within the framework of ecological engineering. Ecological engineering has been described as the management of nature 161 or as the proactive design of sustainable ecosystems that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both 162,163 . Ecological engineering has largely been devoted to the sustainability of wetlands, wastewater, and aquaculture 162 , but can be applied to a larger range of environments. Focusing more on the restoration or protection of sites, the term eco-engineering has recently been defined as the long-term strategy to manage a site with regards to natural or man-made hazards 88 . Eco-engineering is not to be confused with ground bio-engineering. Ground or soil bioengineering methods integrate civil engineering techniques with natural materials to obtain fast, effective, and economic methods of protecting, restoring, and maintaining the environment 164,165 . The use of, for example,...

Dispersal by Deliberate Introduction

Characteristics that make plants and animals valuable or attractive to humans are, in a sense, preadaptations for their dispersal to new geographical regions. Crop, forestry, and horticultural plants, domestic animals and exotic wildlife, aquacultural fish and shellfish, species prized by the pet and aquarium trade all have gained access to new geographical areas because of their value or attractiveness to humans. Animals have also been deliberately transported to new areas. Domestic livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and rabbits, have been introduced to many oceanic islands or have become feral after their introduction for husbandry.Various game and fur-bearing animals have been released on islands or new continental areas or have escaped from farms. Game birds and songbirds have been introduced to new geographical areas for sport and pleasure. Game fish have been freely translocated to new waters, both within and between continents. Fish and invertebrates introduced...

John Todds Living Machine Technology

Much of the design knowledge on living machines is recorded in the book entitled From Eco-Cities to Living Machines (Todd and Todd, 1994), and some of it is included in Table 2.5. Even a children's book on living machines has been produced (Bang, no date). Overall, this is an excellent example of an ecologically engineered technology utilizing the principle of preadaptation early in the design. The aquaculture tanks were preadapted to be organized into a wastewater treatment system with each containing a different unit process. A critical component of the living machine is the sequential nature of the treatment process. Possibly Todd was influenced by John Ryther's project combining aquaculture and wastewater treatment that started in the early 1970s at Woods Hole (Figure 2.23) while Todd worked there. A tie between Todd's design work and Ryther's project might be indicated by McLarney's role with Ryther in a major text on aquaculture (Bardach et al., 1972). Although Ryther's project...

Hybridization Between Alien and Native Animals

Through hybridization between fish of hatchery and wild origin, the fitness of some populations spawning in the wild is also reduced. In Denmark, using DNA microsatellite analysis, Hansen (2002) found that wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations were in some cases highly intro-gressed and others only weakly introgressed by heavy stocking of hatchery fish. Hatchery trout appeared to be poorly adapted as anadromous fish, as opposed to permanent residents in freshwater, so interbreeding with wild fish may have reduced fitness of the anadromous wild population. In British Columbia, Canada, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) captured in the wild are spawned in aquacultural facilities, and the resulting fry are released back into streams to supplement natural

Human Influence on Ecosystems

Humans have greatly altered and impacted the global biosphere. We recognize now the importance of maintaining functioning ecosystem services both out of our own necessity and for the obligation we have to the eco-sphere. In 2000, the United Nations Secretary General called for a global ecological assessment, which was recently published as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) ( The report compiled by over 1350 experts from 95 countries found that humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively over the last 50 years than in any comparable period of time in human history, resulting in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth (other highlights from the report are presented in Table 5). The MEA operated within a framework that identified four primary ecosystem services needed by humans supporting (nutrient cycling, primary production, soil formation, etc.), provisioning (food, water, timber, fuel, etc.), regulating...

Box 172 Sponge Farming

Sponges have been used for cosmetic, bath, or industrial applications since early Grecian times (one early reference is in Homer's The Iliad). However, modern supply, which is predominantly from wild harvest fisheries, is unable to meet a well-established global demand. This shortfall presents an opportunity for sponge production through in-sea aquaculture. Sponges grow easily from cuttings, on lines or mesh panels suspended in the water column. Research has shown that commercially viable sponge farming can be achieved within a sustainable environmental footprint using basic infrastructure, and this opportunity is currently being explored by remote coastal Aboriginal communities in the GBR region and elsewhere in the south Pacific. There is further opportunity to expand the species targeted for sponge farming to include those that elicit promising bioactive compounds. To date, many of these have not progressed in drug development due to the lack of reliable supply. Bulk wild...

Future Trends in Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering is being extended to many new groups of organisms, and it is already being employed in biological control programs for pests such as the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), in which a gene for a fluorescent protein is being introduced to the bollworm as a genetic marker (Thibault et al. 1999). Genetic engineering is spreading to domesticated and semidomesticated animals, forestry and horticultural plants, and aquacultural animals. Genetically engineered fish of several species that grow faster and reach larger sizes in aquaculture have been developed (Muir and Howard 2002). Genes for tolerance by plants and other organisms to insecticides, fungicides, and other pesticides are being sought to permit the increased use of increased dosages of these agents in a manner comparable to the present use of herbicides with herbicide-tolerant crops. Developments such as these would considerably broaden the impacts of pesticide chemicals on all living organisms.

Coral Reef Ecohydrology Model

Figure 3 (a) The ecology submodel for tropical Darwin Harbour, Australia. SSC, suspended solid concentration N, nutrients P, phytoplankton (two dominant species with different turnover rates) Z, zooplankton (two dominant species with different preys and turnover rates) D, detritus S, detritivores ZF, zooplanktivorous fish CF, carnivorous fish. The mangrove swamp is modeled as a source of detritus as well as a source of young detritivores and fish (thick broken arrows). At death all organisms become detritus (thin broken arrows). (b) Photographs in Darwin Harbour of pristine mangroves in traditional Aboriginal land on the west bank (left), aquaculture industries encroaching in mangroves in the southern region (middle), urbanization and port development on the east bank removing all natural habitats (right). Figure 3 (a) The ecology submodel for tropical Darwin Harbour, Australia. SSC, suspended solid concentration N, nutrients P, phytoplankton (two dominant species with different...

Macroalgae and Mariculture

Table 1 Production (metric tons) and value (thousand of US dollars) of the five most important seaweed genus produced by aquaculture Table 1 Production (metric tons) and value (thousand of US dollars) of the five most important seaweed genus produced by aquaculture Modified from Aquaculture production 2004 (2006) FAO Yearbook, Fishery Statistics, vol. 98 2. Rome FAO. Modified from Aquaculture production 2004 (2006) FAO Yearbook, Fishery Statistics, vol. 98 2. Rome FAO. Seaweeds have also been gaining momentum as new experimental systems for biological research and are now being promoted in polyculture systems as an integral part of integrated multi trophic aquaculture (IMTA).

More Detailed Growth Models

Fourth, William Neill and his research group at Texas A& M University have developed very detailed simulation software called Ecophys. Fish that predicts the growth of individual fish in a time-varying physical environment. Including factors such as temperature, salinity, oxygenation, and pH, their model quantifies bioenergetics, growth, and stress of individual fish. The model was applied operationally for estimating stocking densities of red drum, and is also in use for monitoring growth and welfare in aquaculture.

Eucheuma and Kappaphycus Cultivation

Figure 4 (a-d) Bottom stocking of Gracilaria using direct and plastic tube method. (a) Transplantation of rocky substrata with attached Gracilaria to new sites. (b) Gracilaria attached to rocks, with rubber bands for anchorage in soft sediments. (c) Insertion of Gracilaria into soft sediments using a fork. (d) Gracilaria attached to sand filled plastic tubes. (e-g) Attachment of Gracilaria to ropes. (a-d) Modified from Santelices B and Doty M (1989) A review of Gracilaria farming. Aquaculture 78 98-133 Oliveira EC and Alveal K (1990) The mariculture of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta) for the production of agar. In Akatsuka I (ed.) Introduction to Applied Phycology, pp. 553-564. The Hague, The Netherlands SPB Academic Publishing from Critchley AT and Ohno M (eds.) (1997) Cultivation and farming of marine plants. In CD-ROM, Expert Centre for Taxonomic Identification (ETI), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, ISBN 3-540-14549-4. Newyork Springer. (e-g) From Critchley AT and Ohno M (eds.) (1997)...

Geographical Expansion

Geographical expansion of monocultures is still possible in some areas of the world, but for how long. In other areas, site access and availability are already limited and public resistance is growing against further expansion of the current aquaculture model. Moving from sheltered nearshore sites to exposed nearshore sites and offshore sites is being contemplated, but technical and economic challenges remain, especially in regions where the coastal zone is already highly used by many stakeholders with different and competing needs. Real offshore develop ment, proposed by some as the next frontier for development in aquaculture, is not necessarily the appro priate solution for all regions. Moreover, present designs for offshore farms are almost entirely for the development of fed monoculture of 'high valued' fish and rarely consider the association with extractive aquaculture operations and their specific requirements. For example, seaweed aquaculture needs infrastructures near the...

Intensification of the Existing Sites

If the possibility for expansion of the existing finfish aqua culture sector is limited in spatial extent by biological, economic, and social factors, the only other solution to the expansion issue is to increase the production from existing sites. This is analogous to the issue that faces human populations in urban areas. The terrestrial solution has been to increase the tridimensional surface area by using buildings with multiple levels. When one considers the seawater volume available at a lease site and the volume of the water column actually occupied by a series of salmon cages, it is obvious that a cultivation unit is not optimized. The area of a lease site also has to accommodate room for the anchoring systems, vessel access, water flow, etc. Advanced technology will thus be a prerequisite for intensification. As with concentrated housing for humans, there will have to be a high degree of surface area for organisms, and efficient systems for food delivery, waste treatment, and...

Changes in Attitudes Are Needed

There is a paradoxical situation when looking at current worldwide food production. In agriculture, 80 of the production is made up of plants and 20 of animal products (meat, milk, eggs, etc.), while in aquaculture, 80 of the production is animal biomass and 20 is plant biomass. Considering only mariculture, the world wide production is made up of 45.9 seaweeds, 43 mollusks, 8.9 finfish, 1.8 crustaceans, and 0.4 of varied other animals. Consequently, in many parts of the world, aquaculture is not synonymous to finfish aquacul ture, as so many people in affluent western countries believe. If one is reasonably assessing, based on the need for balancing the cultured species functions within the surrounding ecosystem functions, marine herbivores, car nivores, and omnivores cannot be cultivated while neglecting marine plants - as efficient biofilters, a crop on their own, or a food component for other organisms - a fact apparently missed by a certain number of the 'Blue Revolution'...

Inputs to the environment

Human and veterinary medicines may be released to the environment by a number of routes. During the manufacturing process, residues may be released from the process and may ultimately enter surface waters. Following administration, human medicines may be absorbed, metabolised and then excreted to the sewer system. They will then enter a treatment works before being released to receiving waters or land during the application of sewage sludge. When used to treat pasture animals, veterinary medicines may be excreted directly to soils or surface waters. Aquaculture treatments will be released directly to surface waters. For intensive livestock treatments, the medicines are likely to enter the environment indirectly through the application of slurry and manure as fertilisers to land. Other minor routes of entry include emissions to air and through the disposal of unused medicines and containers. Once released into the environment, pharmaceuticals will be transported and distributed to

Alien Species as an Environmental Issue

It usually is simpler and far more effective to prevent the arrival of an alien species than to control it after it is established. The major vectors that bring aquatic aliens into the Northeast today are ballast water and unintended releases of species used for pets, bait, and aquaculture, both of which could be brought under better control. Ballast water management is currently an active area of policy change and research (Carlton and Holohan, 1998). Ballast water is water that is taken on by ships to improve their stability and performance. Because ships carry large volumes of ballast water, which is not usually treated to exclude or kill organisms, ballast water is a major vector for species introductions worldwide (e.g., Carlton andGeller, 1993 National Research Council, 1996). Currently, under the National Invasive Species Act of 1996, ballast water of ships entering the Great Lakes or Hudson River (above the George Washington Bridge) must be treated to kill organisms, retained...

Impacts of Environmental Change

Deforestation of mangrove wetlands is associated with many uses of coastal environments, including urban, agriculture, and aquaculture reclamation, as well as the use of forest timber for furniture, energy, chip wood, and construction materials. Two reclamation activities that have contributed to examples of massive mangrove deforestation are agriculture and aquaculture enterprises. Agriculture impacts on mangroves are most noted in West Africa and parts of Indonesia. Many of the large agricultural uses are found in humid coastal areas or deltas where freshwater is abundant and intertidal lands are seasonally available for crop production. Mariculture use of the tropical intertidal zones, in the construction and operation of shrimp ponds, has become one of the most significant environmental changes of mangrove wetlands

Ecological Engineering Approaches

A basic approach within ecological engineering is to prevent environmental effects or allow recovery from them. The most basic ecological engineering approaches are based on the capabilities of unmanipulated organisms to respond by enhancing the assimilation of the wastes produced by the aquaculture practices. Emerging technologies will allow balancing the relative abundance of organisms with different ecosystem functions to avoid disruption by the introduction of massive fed aquaculture species into coastal areas.

Limitations Toward an Ecological Engineering Breakthrough

To date, as environmental costs (externalities) are not internalized by business companies, there are no major economic drivers promoting the introduction of tools that would help to control, reduce, and minimize the environmental effects of aquaculture. Regulatory and financial incentives are therefore required to recognize the benefits of ecological engineering approaches. Denmark is presently reconsidering finfish mariculture development, recognizing that proper planning for biomitigation and the use of Another example has suggested that the internalization of the environmental costs of only the nutrient loading of N and P by salmon farming in Sweden and Chile could raise production costs and develop a very unattractive commercial situation. However, with an IMTA approach, the nutrient loads being introduced to the environment can be reduced significantly by using extractive species and salmon aquaculture can still remain economically profitable. As in the Western world...

Ecological Engineering for Eutrophication Management in Coastal Zones

Aquaculture is another human activity that can both be affected by eutrophication and can also impact eutrophi cation. The deterioration of water quality resulting from eutrophication can have serious repercussions on the aquaculture industry. However, the excessive feeding of fish in cage aquaculture can also contribute to the increase in nitrogen inputs into aquatic ecosystems. Conversely, the culture of filter feeding bivalves may significantly graze algal blooms resulting from the over stimulation of phytoplankton production. An apparently contradictory situation of high nitrogen-low chlorophyll may develop in such cases. Conversely, the destruction by over harvesting of natural filter bivalve beds may favor eutrophication. Such is the case of the Chesapeake Bay where the loss of the oyster grounds probably con tributed to the vulnerability of this large estuary to eutrophication.

Mariculture requirements and methods

Recent 1990s technology has seen the development of prototype 'fish factories' which aim to mass-produce both seawater and freshwater fish. These 'biosystems' are closed units which function on a very efficient re-cycling of seawater and so can be situated well away from the coast on normal industrial estates. The system is being developed by the Danish Institute of Aquaculture Technology and is already producing freshwater eels. Commercial production of marine species such as cod is in development and may well become a reality in future years.

Extinction and Extirpation due to Hybridization

Salmon (Salmo salar) farmed for seven generations differed significantly in morphology, behavior, growth, and life history features from the native fish from which they were derived (Fleming and Einum 1997). The changes, adaptive to the aquacultural environment, can be transmitted to wild populations through the escape of farmed animals. Interbreeding with wild salmon may thus reduce the fitness of wild salmon and hasten the extinction of wild populations. In Ireland, studies suggested that interbreeding of farmed and native salmon would lead to an increase in age of maturity in native populations, which might be maladaptive for salmon runs in shallow streams (McGinnity et al. 1997).

The Application Of Ecoexergy As Ecological Indicator For Assessment Of Ecosystem Health

The Sacca di Goro is a shallow water embayment of the Po Delta. The surface area is 26 km2 and the total water volume is approximately 40 X 106 m3. The catchment basin is heavily exploited for agriculture, while the lagoon is one of the most important clam (Tapes philippinarum) aquaculture systems in Italy. The combination of all these anthropogenic pressures call for an integrated management that considers all different aspects, from lagoon fluid dynamics, ecology, nutrient cycles, river runoff influence, shellfish farming, macro-algal blooms, and sediments, as well as the socio-economical implication of different possible management strategies. All these factors are responsible for important disruptions in ecosystem functioning characterized by eutrophic and dystrophic conditions in summer (Viaroli et al., 2001), algal blooms, oxygen depletion, and sulfide production (Chapelle et al., 2000). Water quality is the major problem. In fact from 1987 to 1992 the Sacca di Goro experienced...

Management Considerations

Understanding the ability of a population to resist impacts has obvious and important implications for the successful management conservation of that population. For instance, the practice of farming, be it agrior aquaculture, can tend to lead to a loss of genetic diversity in the farmed organisms. It is this genetic diversity that provides the basis not only for the plastic responses to density described above but also as

Mondego Estuary Description

The Mondego River drains a hydrological basin of approximately 6670 km2 at the western coast of Portugal. Urban wastewater is still discharged into the Mondego without treatment, and the estuary supports industrial activities, desalination ponds, and aquaculture. Additionally, the lower Mondego River valley has about 15,000ha of farming fields (mainly rice paddies), with a significant loss of nutrients to the estuary (Marques, 1989).

IMTA as an Ecological Engineering Approach

With the intention of reducing the inputs of wastes from aquaculture to the environment, four main approaches have been developed. The first considers isolating an operation from the surrounding environment by devel oping enclosed systems at sea. These 'bag' techniques have been developed and tested over the recent decades, but costs and technological issues, especially in regions of strong tidal regimes, have prevented their development and adoption at commercial scale. Establishing open IMTA systems requires a well established knowledge of the different oceanographic fea tures of a water body used by aquaculture operations to determine the real impact of the IMTA layout on redu cing waste discharges. Water circulation modeling is, consequently, essential for the development of appropri ate IMTA systems. Several suitable hydrodynamic models are available for water column and bottom physi cal description however, few consider explicit links with biological components and processes...

Agroforestry in Practice

Silvopasture Brazil

And less intensive systems such as taungya and shifting cultivation are common in areas with less population density. In the semiarid tropics also, the nature of agrofor estry systems is influenced by population pressure homegardens and multilayer tree gardens are found in the relatively wetter areas, windbreaks, and shelterbelts, and multipurpose trees on croplands are found in the drier regions. In regions of highland tropics that have favorable rainfall regimes, sloping lands and rolling topography make soil erosion an issue of major concern consequently, soil conservation is one of the main objectives of agroforestry in these regions. Shaded perennial systems, use of woody perennials in soil conservation, improved fallows, and sil vopastoral systems are the major forms of agroforestry in such tropical highlands. Several other specific systems also exist in the tropics, for example, apiculture with trees, aquaculture involving trees and shrubs, and woodlots of 'multipurpose trees'...

Innovative Practices Need to be Developed

Energy Flow Imta

One of the innovative solutions being proposed for environmental sustainability, economic diversifica tion, and social acceptability, is integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA). This practice combines, in the appropriate proportions, the cultivation of fed aquaculture species (e.g., finfish) with organic extractive aquaculture species (e.g., shellfish) and inorganic extrac tive aquaculture species (e.g., seaweed) for a balanced ecosystem management approach that takes into consid eration site specificity, operational limits, and food safety guidelines and regulations (Figure 1). The aim is to increase long term sustainability and profitability per cultivation unit (not per species in isolation as is done in monoculture), as the wastes of one crop (fed animals) are converted into fertilizer, food, and energy for the other crops (extractive plants and animals), which can in turn be sold in the market. Feed is one of the core operational costs of finfish aquaculture operations....

The importance of the early control of invaders

The arrival of an exotic species with a high likelihood of becoming a significant invasive species should be a matter for urgent action, because this is the stage at which eradication is both feasible and easy to justify economically. Such campaigns sometimes rely on fundamental knowledge of population ecology. An example is the eradication of the South African sabellid polychaete worm, Terebrasabella heterouncinata, a parasite of abalone and other gastropods that became established near the outflow of an abalone aquaculture facility in California (Culver & Kuris, 2000).

Attempts to Manage and Reduce Waste Discharges

Since the early development of modern aquaculture in Western countries (i.e., culture of high trophic high value species using artificial feeds), several attempts to reduce waste discharges have been tested. The first approach to reduce environmental effects of fish waste is related to site selection. Sites have been chosen based on hydrodynamic conditions and logistical infrastructures to optimize the growth rate of the cultivated species, while Figure 2 Model comparing main biogeochemical processes between (a) unpolluted and (b) organically enriched sediments beneath intensive fish farms. (a) Normal biogeochemical processes involved in the degradation of particulate organic matter (POM). Intensity of gray color indicates reduction of redox potential (Eh) from oxygenated upper layer ( 300 mV), the aerobic-hypoxic interface ( 100 mV, dotted line), to highly reduced deeper strata (< 200 mV). POM is hydrolyzed by detritivorous activity and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in the...

Ecology As The Source Of Inspiration In Design

Ecological Engineering

John Todd has developed a unique wastewater treatment system, termed the living machine, which is the product of a long design history (Guterstam and Todd, 1990 Todd, 1988a, 1988b, 1990, 1991 Todd and Todd, 1994). The development of the design started at the New Alchemy Institute on Cape Cod, which Todd helped create in the early 1970s. The New Alchemy Institute was an organization devoted to developing and demonstrating integrated environmental technologies involving energy systems, architecture, and sustainable agriculture (Todd and Todd, 1980, see Chapter 9). One of the principal elements in these integrated systems was aquaculture. Especially with William McLarney and Ronald Zweig, Todd tried many configurations of fish culture tanks (McLarney and Todd, 1977 Zweig, 1986 Zweig et al., 1981). He settled on a large cylindrical tank (up to 1000 gal or 3790 l capacity) made of translucent material as a basic module (Figure 2.29). Table 2 in Tomorrow Is Our Permanent Address (Todd and...

Aiacote Top Ten Green Projects

Regenerative Studies is home to an environmental program of study at the university that is faculty- and student-driven. The site is subject to heavy use, and this was initially a concern to university trustees. They predicted a slowly deteriorating site, with mosquitoes in the aquaculture ponds and unkempt grounds. The reverse has been true. There is a distinct sense of place, opportunity, and community at the center. Students and faculty are using every available approach to explore alternative solutions to environmental problems. Many students are inspired to study ways to design and construct such projects as solar panels, solar ovens, composters, and irrigation systems and to conduct agricultural experiments. In this way, the environmental performance has been enhanced, just as it was envisioned. This project has taken on a life of its own, and it continues to evolve as an academic setting for environmental research.

Human Use of Primary Production

Preclude the accumulation of harvestable biomass). Because overfishing has become a worldwide phenomenon, obtaining more food from the sea seems out of the question. As a matter of fact, aquaculture is already responsible for much of the seafood and fish in today's markets.

Socioeconomic Structure and Policy Failures

Although poverty may cause people to misuse resources, wealth also puts strains on resources by leading to increased consumption. Globalization of trade and markets has expanded production in some developing countries to meet international demand, often at the expense of biodiversity. Conversion of wetlands for shrimp aquaculture, deforestation for cattle, coffee, or soybean production are just a few examples of how globalization has contributed to biodiversity loss. Global markets also mean that consumers are often unaware of where the items they buy are from, or how they were harvested, though specialized labeling of food, paper, and wood products, sometimes called green-labeling or eco-labeling, can allow consumers to choose products that are managed sustainably. Markets do not necessarily reflect the full value of something or its full cost to the environment. Existing policies and government incentives often encourage overuse of resources. The phrase perverse subsidies was coined...

Gracilaria Cultivation

Gracilaria cultivation is mainly practiced in three dif ferent ways open water cultivation, pond culture, and tank culture. Open water cultivation is practiced in estuaries, bays, and upwelling areas. Gracilaria has been cultivated in ponds on a large scale only in China and Taiwan. Ponds are generally located in areas not exposed to strong wind, situated near the sources of both freshwater and seawater. Several species of economically important marine organisms (e.g., shrimp, crabs, fish, and prawns) are co cultured in the same pond at the same time - a type of polyculture integrated multitrophic system. The use of tanks may provide the greatest productivity per unit area and is more efficient than any other type of farming. In this type of system, several steps can be precisely controlled and managed to reduce the labor input, although this type of system has high operational (especially energy) costs. Tank systems may hold promise for the processing of nutrient enriched waters from...

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

Carp The common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758), one of the few fishes that are truly domesticated for aquaculture (Balon 1995a), a reason for their morphological variability. Carp, Indian Members of the Family Cyprinidae, important in South Asian aquaculture. Returning to the CD quote, we note, with Eknath and Doyle (1990), that in India, as in most other parts of the world, traditional aquaculture practices usually lead to inbreeding, i.e. to less variability than occurs in wild stocks

Comments from the Literature about Muskrats in Treatment Wetlands

Plate Waste Template

Aquaculture Species The aquacultural production of useful species from domestic wastewater is related to the topic of treatment wetlands. Allen (1973) called these systems sewage farming and many examples exist (Allen and Carpenter, 1977 Costa-Pierce, 1998 FIGURE 2.23 View of the Woods Hole wastewater treatment-aquaculture system. (From Goldman, J. C. et al., 1974a. Water Research. 8 45-54. With permission.)

The Poseidon Conveyer

One of the most important oceanic current variations, in terms of fishing and aquaculture, is the Lamont-Kandinsky-Hackett cycle, also known as the Poseidon Conveyer effect or the Primary Poseidon Gyre. On the western coasts of the Arc of Fire, weather is warmer and more humid, but fishing and aquaculture are stricken. Storms are more common, particularly in the north.


As discussed further below, the relatively low lipo-philicities of many antibiotics suggest that uptake into organisms is limited. However, previous studies identified oxytetracycline residues in fish following aquaculture application, and an even more recent study detected trimethoprim and erythromycin in tissues of fish residing in an effluent-dominated stream, corresponding with the USGS report of relatively high levels of these compounds in sediments downstream from a WWTP discharge. Thus, the occurrence of antibiotics and their potential to affect terrestrial and aquatic organisms via various exposure routes requires further investigation.

Runoff from land

Into rivers that flow onto coastal reefs. Throughout the tropics, there has been widespread deforestation and land clearing for agriculture, aquaculture and urbanisation. Turbidity influences the physiology, growth and survival of corals in several ways (see also Chapter 7). First, corals are forced to expend energy cleaning themselves of sediment and repairing damaged tissues. Second, the amount of light reaching a coral colony is reduced by increased turbidity, slowing their growth. Third, turbid waters tend to be enriched in organic matter and nutrients, which can boost the energy intake of some hardy corals. However, in general, too much sediment is bad for reefs. It is especially damaging to juvenile corals that are easily smothered by silt (Fig. 9.2).


Emergy evaluation describes the relationship between human and natural systems. There have been many studies on this interaction here we chose one that assessed the environmental impact of a fish farm. Aquaculture has many interactions with the surrounding environment using resources and producing changes in the ecological system.


It is amazing to realize how very little the aquaculture sector is diversified in some countries or significant pro ducing regions. For example, the salmon aquaculture in Canada represents 68.2 of the tonnage of the aquacul ture industry and 87.2 of its farmgate value. In Norway, Scotland, and Chile, the salmon aquaculture represents 88.8 , 93.3 , and 81.9 of the tonnage of the aquacul ture industry, and 87.3 , 90.9 , and 95.5 of its farmgate value, respectively. Conversely, while Spain (Galicia) produces only 8 of salmon in tonnage (16 in farmgate value), it produces 81 of its tonnage in mussels (28 in farmgate value). Why do we think that the common old saying ''Do not put all your eggs in one basket'', which applies to agriculture and many other businesses, would not also apply to aquaculture. Having too much of your production in a single species leaves a business vulnerable to issues of sustainability because of low prices due to oversupply, and the possibility of catastrophic...

South Africa

Abalone (Haliotis midae) aquaculture in South Africa is an example in which IMTA is practiced at a large scale. These systems have evolved from both the 'trial and error' approach and small scale scientific experiments. It is still in its early stage but the potential is high as South Africa is the largest producer of cultured abalone outside Asia. Abalone is cultured in land based flow through tank systems and fed kelps (Ecklonia maxima) or pellet feeds. Over 6000 tonnes of kelps are harvested annually on the South African west coast for abalone feed, and some kelp beds are now reaching sustainable limits of exploitation (Figure 8). A growing body of evidence suggests that a mixed diet of kelps and other seaweeds can induce growth 100 ) can be sustained for shorter periods. This can, of course, be optimized, depending on what the main objec tive is with re circulation. The re circulation through seaweed tanks ponds also has the potential to raise water temperature, which can...


Many years of fish sampling around Heron Island suggests that the 1000 fish species may be infected with as many as 2000 monogenean species that are usually external parasites in the gill chambers or on the skin. Unlike digeneans their life cycle only involves a single host (Fig. 22.3L). It has been suggested that under normal circumstances the host lives in some sort of harmony with its parasites, however, under conditions of stress (as occurs in aquaculture), declining water quality with increased levels of fertiliser or pesticides can disrupt this balance with the health of the host species declining.


One of the problems of marine fish farming is to find suitable sources of fish food. During their early stages of growth, fish larvae require very small food particles and some take only live food. This need for bulk production of suitable planktonic foods adds to the other problems of fish farming. Even if live food is not essential, minced fish and similar finely divided foods are very prone to bacterial contamination and consequent detrimental effects. There is some hope that the invention of microcapsules as artificial food particles may prove to be a useful contribution to aquaculture. Precise mixtures of food materials suited to the requirements of particular organisms can now be encapsulated within artificial membranes, producing particles of controlled composition and size, some of which are readily accepted as food by certain small organisms or by filter feeders (Jones et al, 1974 1979).


A recently identified problem concerns the use of anti-fouling paints containing the organotin, tri-butyl-tin (TBT). The use of paints containing TBT has been banned since 1987 in the UK for boats under 25 metres long and for aquaculture equipment. TBT is still in use for larger boats and can also enter the marine environment when ships' hulls are stripped and re-painted. TBT causes various deformities in molluscs and had such a bad effect on oyster farming that the UK industry practically collapsed. In dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), it causes a condition known as imposex, where females develop male sexual characteristics and breeding is impaired. Dogwhelks live for 5 to 6 years and spend all their lives on the same stretch of shore. They are therefore very good indicators of TBT pollution and were used as such when the case for banning TBT was being investigated.


Water is becoming scarce in many areas worldwide. Water mining reduces water levels, but high and stable groundwater tables are a prerequisite for the existence of riparian wetlands. In addition to direct water withdrawal, predictions about climatic changes include other threats. Increased stochasticity of the runoff patterns and reduced snowmelt floods are severe threats to the existence of riparian wetlands. The riparian zones of streams and rivers have been sought after by humans since early days. High productivity, reliable water supply, and climatic stability make these ecosystems suitable for a range of human-use types, such as wood extraction, hunting, aquaculture, and agriculture. In areas of intensive agriculture, riparian zones including their wetlands have shrunk to narrow strips or have completely vanished. On the other hand, the ecosystem services are good socio-economical arguments to restore and enlarge riparian wetlands.

Economic Aspects

Artemia are an important food for aquaculture of some fish and other organisms. Typically, cysts are harvested from lakeshores and maintained dry until needed, when they are readily hatched by submerging in saline water. Occasionally, such as at Mono Lake, adult Artemia are collected, frozen, and shipped to aquaculture facilities.

Figure 815

Many invasives have been introduced to new habitats by humans, both intentionally and unintentionally. Disturbed habitats and islands tend to be more susceptible to plant invasion. Plant infestations in wetlands may bring about changes in both plant and animal communities. Floating invasives such as Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta can shade the water column, reducing light and the phytoplanktonic production of oxygen. Invasive plants such as Melaleuca quinquenervia and Tamarix species may change the local hydrology through increased transpiration. Invasives affect humans by expanding the habitat of vectors of waterborne or water-related diseases. They also clog water intakes, interfere with aquaculture, and block access to boat docks or swimming areas. Invasives are controlled by altering their habitat or by using mechanical, chemical, or biological controls. A combination of control methods is usually the most effective.

Otter nuisance

Elsewhere in Europe depredations by otters in fish farms are a cause for concern, with significant quantities of salmonid fish being taken in Finland, especially in winter (Ludwig et al. 2002), often as surplus kills left uneaten. Annual losses were estimated at US 75,000 in the 1980s, but are likely to have increased substantially since then. Similar observations of otter damage in fish farms have been made in Poland (Kloskowski 2000), France (Leblanc 2003) and the north of England (Morgan 2003), and no doubt fish farms in other continents will have records to match. Both the smooth and the small-clawed otter have been mentioned as taking fish and shrimps from aquaculture projects in Malaysia (Foster-Turley 1992).

Harmful Algal Blooms

Numerous new bloom events have been discovered because of increased awareness and improved detection methodologies (e.g., molecular probes for cell recognition, PCR probes for rDNA specific to genera or species of HABs, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), remote sensing data from satellites, qualified observers, and efficient monitoring programs). The global increase of aquaculture activities and trade of exotic species has led to improved safety and quality controls that revealed the presence of HAB species and or toxins in, for exam ple, aquaculture pens, and contaminated seafood. Mortality events and toxicity outbreaks in fish or bivalves resources can no longer go unnoticed. Transport of toxic species in ship ballast water undeniably contributes to the increasingly damaging effect of HABs on fisheries, aqua culture, human health, tourism, and the marine and brackish environment. UNEP has recently ranked HABs among the ten worst threats of invasive species trans ported in...


An interdisciplinary team of scientists from the University of New Brunswick in Saint John and from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in St. Andrews has been working together on an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kelp (Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta) blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) IMTA project in the Bay of Fundy since 2001 (Figures 4 and 5). The project, initially supported by AquaNet, the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence for Aquaculture, is now moving from the R& D phase towards the C (commercialization) phase with the support of the Atlantic Innovation Fund from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, and industrial and government partners (Cooke Aquaculture Inc., Acadian Seaplants Limited, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and the New Brunswick Innovation Foundation). Because AquaNet was funded by three Canadian federal granting agencies - the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Canadian Institutes of Health...

Landscape Functions

Provisioning functions comprise functions that supply 'physical services' in terms of resources or space. This category has been divided into two classes production and carrier functions. Production functions reflect resources produced by natural ecosystems, for example, the harvesting of fish from the ocean, pharmaceutical products from wild plants and animals, or wood from natural forests. Carrier functions reflect the goods and services that are provided through human manipulation of natural productivity (e.g., fish from aquaculture or timber from plantations). In these cases, the function offered by nature is the provision of a suitable substrate or space for human activities, including agriculture, mining, transportation, etc. plantations, aquaculture)

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