The Arrangement of Indoor Aquariums

Although an indoor aquarium can be designed and maintained for any of several purposes, it should always be attractive. The design and planting should not only suit the needs of the plants and fish but should also be as perfect as possible esthetically. Clean, washed sand, rather coarse in texture, is the most suitable substrate material for the aquarium. The surface of the bottom material should not be flat, but should slope down toward the front, terrace-like, with some irregular...

General Principles for the Cultivation of Aquatic Plants

Plants Aquarium Amazon River

In order to give aquarium plants a perfectly suitable medium, we must first be aware of the conditions existing in their native habitat. Most aquarium plants come from tropical and subtropical areas, with a few from the warmer parts of the temperate zone. Often the aquarist will see in print or hear in discussions the assumption that tropical soils are fertile and rich in nutrients this is of course in error. As a rule the soil in the tropics is poor because Aerial view of Rio Purus, a...

Illumination of the Aquarium

If an aquarium is to fulfill its esthetic function, it must be brightly illuminated. Artificial light is an absolute necessity for the development of plants. It is even more important than the quality of the water. The length of the day changes in the temperate zone with the change of seasons. In spring the day is as long as the night on March 21. Then the days get longer and are at their longest on the first day of summer June 21 . The shortest day of the year is the first day of winter...

The Tropics Of The Indomalayan Area

Together with the South American tropics, this area produces more aquarium plants than any other area. Most aquarium plants and fish from the Indo-Malayan area originate from the Malayan peninsula and Indonesia especially the larger islands of Java and Sumatra , Borneo, the Celebes, and New Guinea. A great number of species also come from Ceylon Sri Lanka . The most conspicuous feature of the area is the absence of large rivers. In the places where, because of thorough drainage, no rice fields...

The Tropics Of South America

The Amazon basin, measuring over 2Vz million sq. mi., is for the most part a great plain, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the river. The South American forests, to which we turn because of an interest in Echinodorus species, do not have marshy characteristics but resemble temporary water reservoirs. It is true that the deep forests are moist, but they are entirely without permanent standing water. Where any great water surfaces are found, they are mainly concentrated in the...