Their depth below the surface often determines the way of life of the plant much as it does their structure and color. In consequence some plants are always found in the lower layers of water, while others live rather nearer the surface. Several groups can be
1) Submersed plants that are rooted in the bottom and have leaves and stems that grow permanently under water. They may also flower under water and produce seeds there. The flowers or leaves do not always reach the surface and are not adapted to a life above water. This group includes many aquarium plants such as
Lemna is a floating type of plant found In ponds and quiet streams. Remo val of excess growth in aquariums is recommended for this prolific plant
2) Plants rooted in the bottom but with leaves reaching the water surface. They usually have well developed roots and fragile stems with which to resist the pressure of the current. They flower as a rule above the water surface and, unlike the preceding group, they develop more conspicuous flowers. Land forms can develop, Myriophyllum and Heteranthera, among others, are representative of this group,
3) Floating plants that live in the surface layer of the water. Their roots float freely and their leaves may be on the surface, as in Lemna and Limnobium, under water, as in Utricularia, or above water, as in Eichhornia. The flowers are always above water and are pollinated in the air.
4) Amphibious plants that can grow under water as well as on dry land. In the water they develop submersed as well as floating leaves and/or emersed aerial leaves. When the water dries, land forms arise. These are mainly barikside plants, of which many are important in the aquarium. Typical genera include Echinodorus, Sagittaria, and Cryptocoryne.
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