Secrets of the Deep Sky

Jupsat Pro Astronomy Software

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Jupsat Pro Astronomy Software Summary


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Secrets of the Deep Sky

Brian Ventrudo, author of Secrets of the Deep Sky, reveals how to look beyond the easy sights such as Venus, Mars, the Pleiades star cluster, and the moon, and find the much deeper parts of the beautiful night sky that most people never get see. You will learn to increase the reach of your telescope to look farther into the sky, and find any object of the night sky that you want to see. You will learn the celestial coordinate system, to learn how to map any object in the sky. You can also learn to estimate distances in the night sky. You can learn to change your field of view to see wide objects like massive nebula, and simple techniques to preserve your night vision and increase the sensitivity of your eyes by 20-40x. This eBook guide shows everyone, from the beginner to the more experience stargazer the best tricks to get the most out of every night sky. More here...

Secrets of the Deep Sky Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Brian Ventrudo
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Price: $29.00

More astronomyon red giants and the faint young sun

Stellar astronomy sits at the heart of ecology. This may seem a strange assertion for two biologists to make however, almost all energy in our ecosystems ultimately comes from the Sun through photosynthesis. In addition, without the Sun the Earth would be The ultimate fate of life on Earth has been clear since the first half of the twentieth century, when the basic life cycle of stars was worked out. Typically, stars are powered by the fusion of hydrogen into helium, and in a star similar to our Sun, as the source of usable hydrogen starts to run out, it starts to contract. This contraction increases temperatures within the star leading in a process first suggested by Fred Hoyle to the fusion of helium atoms. The energy released by this process causes the star to increase greatly in size since it also produces redder light, such a star is referred to as a red giant.2 Hoyle described what would happen in a radio broadcast and associated best-selling popular science book in the middle...

Thermodynamics Harmony

If Tycho Brahe was a dragon guarding a treasure (his astronomical observations), the young mathematician and author of astrological almanacs, Johannes Kepler, was a modest popular antihero who stole the treasure and used it to forge the new astronomy through mathematical algorithms. Thus Kitty Ferguson describes the strange pair, Brahe and Kepler, in her essay The Nobleman and his Housedog'' (2002).

Integrating ontogeny into ecological and evolutionary investigations

The field of 'integrative biology' utilizes multidisciplinary approaches to establish a more complete and, therefore, insightful interpretation of an organism's biology. Certainly there is nothing unprecedented about integrative strategies in seeking to understand the natural world. In fact, the major structuring ofWestern science 2500 years ago by Aristotle and others involved those simultaneously interested in a wide range of topics from gross anatomy, physiology, chemistry, classification of organisms, astronomy, philosophy, and earth sciences. Even as late as the 18th and 19th centuries, integrative biology was alive and well and most investigators saw little need for establishing hard boundaries between subdisciplines. For example, Darwin was a master of integrative biology who, in forming his dynamic view of life, embraced studies in embryology, paleontology, functional morphology, animal husbandry, heredity, biogeography, ecology, earth sciences, and even physics. The 20th...

A processbased approach

This book is structured around the following thought experiment. 'For any planet with carbon-based life, which persists over geological time-scales, what is the minimum set of ecological processes that must be present ' By limiting myself to considering carbon-based life located on a planet many possible life forms are excluded. For example, the astronomer Fred Hoyle invented extraordinary intelligent interstellar clouds in his novel The Black Cloud (Hoyle, 1957). This is one of the most interesting alien life forms in science fiction as it relies on neither Earth-type biology or a planetary habitat. Writing as a scientist he also argued for carbon-based life living in comets, although many have viewed this as another aspect of Hoyle's science fiction writing (Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, (1999a) Wickramasinghe (2005) for a more accessible autobiographical account of this work). It is possible that Hoyle himself may have become less convinced by some of the more extreme versions of these...

Challenges To Theory And Application Of Optimal Resource Extraction Models

Economic actions, such as the extraction or harvest of a resource and the production of goods and services, are accompanied by changes in the state of the economic system and its environment. Production of goods and services in the economy necessitates use of some materials and energy that are typically not valued economically. Additionally, production inevitably leads to waste of materials and energy, thereby affecting the long-term performance of the ecosystem. Models of optimal resource extraction are particularly selective in the consideration of such feedback processes between the economic system and the environment. This is not to say that economics altogether disregards them. All models and theories provide abstractions of real processes. However, neglecting some physical and biological foundations of economic processes may lead to results that neglect vital issues, such as the earth's capacity to support life, which ultimately determine economic welfare. The complex...

Modeling Predator Prey Dynamics

Our gathering in Sicily from which contributions to this volume developed coincided with the continuing celebration of400 years of modern science since Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Although Galileo is most often remembered for his work in astronomy and physics, I suggest that his most fundamental contributions were to the roots of rational approaches to conducting science. An advocate of mathematical rationalism, Galileo made a case against the Aristotelian logicoverbal approach to science (Galilei 1638) and in 1623 insisted that the Book of Nature is written in the language of mathematics (McMullin 1988). Backed by a rigorous mathematical basis for logic and hypothesis building, Galileo founded the modern experimental method. The method of Galileo was the combination of calculation with experiment, transforming the concrete into the abstract and assiduously comparing results (Settle 1988).

Destruction from spacedanger from supernovae

End of the Permian (251 million years ago),14 arguably the largest extinction event over the past 542 million years of Earth history, and one of the few suggested 'mass extinctions' for which we have really watertight evidence in the geological record (the 'end Cretaceous' extinction is the other reasonably well-documented case).15 However, the scientists studying these deformed pollen grains prefer explanations based on volcanic activity, rather than astronomy, to explain changes in ozone levels and hence mutation rates.14,16 More importantly for this chapter's question, recent attempts to model the potential effects of a supernova on the Earth's ozone layer, taking full advantage of the speed of modern computers, suggest that the danger is not as great as early studies suggested. For example, work by Gehrels and colleagues12 suggests that a supernova 26 light years from Earth (extremely close by astronomical standards) would only double the amount of biologically active UV reaching...

Maximum entropy spectral analysis

Maximum entropy spectral analysis (summarized by Ables, 1974) has been successfully used in astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and so on. Its popularity for the analysis of ecological data series is increasing. MESA can handle short series as well as series with data exhibiting measurement errors (Ables, 1974). It may also be used to analyse series with missing data (Ulrych & Clayton, 1976). Arfi & Dumas (1990) compared MESA to the classical Fourier approach, using simulated and real oceanographic data series. For long series (n 450), the two approaches have the same efficiency when noise is low, but MESA is more efficient when noise is high. For short (n 49 to 56) and very short (n 30) series, MESA is systematically more efficient. For long data series with low noise, it may often be simpler to compute the spectrum in the traditional way (Berryman, 1978). However, for many ecological data series,

The Temperature Constraint on Biologic Evolution

A temperature constraint on biologic evolution was first apparently proposed over 30 years ago by the astronomer Fred Hoyle, who suggested that a warm early Earth held back the emergence of low-temperature life. If a robust climatic record can be inferred from the paleotempera-tures derived from the oxygen-isotopic record of marine cherts, then important implications to our understanding of the evolutionary history of the biosphere are implied, first of all that climatic (surface) temperature itself was plausibly the determining constraint with respect to the timing of major events in microbial evolution. These events included the emergence of photosynthesis, eukar-yotes, and Metazoa fungi plants (see Figure 6).

Empirical Generalization Method

Models, or complementing some hypotheses relating to the existing empirical generalizations, we shall get some new models. In accordance with Vernadsky's opinion, the choice on the set of these models, hypotheses must be produced by the coincidence of predicted and observed again facts. If this coincidence takes place, then the hypothesis becomes an empirical generalization of a higher level. From this point of view, for example, the practical astronomy of Ancient World was a typical empirical generalization, and ancient astronomers were successfully using the phenomenological model created on its basis. The same underlying empirical generalization is the basis of two principally different cosmogonic hypotheses by Ptolemee and Copernicus. If and only if new facts had appeared, the Copernicus cosmogony would have become a new empirical generalization. Therefore, the same empirical generalization can be a basis of different models.

What is mathematical ecology and why should we do it

Prediction is a good thing when you can get it, but we cannot always get it. Prediction is often regarded as the highest test of a scientific theory - indeed, the ability to quantitatively predict something is often taken as the hallmark of a hard science. The epitomes of the hard, predictive sciences are, of course, physics and astronomy. However, predictive capability or the lack thereof may be an essential difference between the biological as against the physical sciences, rather than a sine qua non of scientific synthesis as such (Holton 1978). There are several reasons why quantitative predictions are easier in physics than in ecology.

Biomass and Gaia

In the context of the Earth a plausible answer to this question is that Earth systems do appear to have regulated conditions within a life-friendly range over geological time however, this is accidental, with no reason to expect the same to happen on any other planet with life. Several people raised this possibility in the context of Gaia theory at the end of the 1990s (Lenton, 1998 Watson, 1999 Wilkinson, 1999a) however, it is Andy Watson who has taken these arguments most seriously (Watson, 1999, 2004). The basic idea is easily explained and has much in common with the anthropic principle in astronomy, where the presence of astronomers clearly implies aspects of the nature of the Universe (Carr and Rees, 1979 Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, 1999b). As I have previously written, 'Any planet which is home to organisms as complex as James Lovelock

The system

Studies in chemistry, or any realm of science, commonly consist of a series of directed examinations of parts of nature's realm called systems. A system is an identifiable fragment of the world that is recognizable and that has attributes that one can identify in terms of form and or function. We can give examples at any level of size and complexity, and in essentially any context. Indeed, a dog is a system at a pet show whereas the human heart is a system to the cardiologist a tumor cell is a system to the cancer specialist a star or planet or galaxy is a system to an astronomer a molecule, or a collection of molecules, is a system to a chemist and a macromolecule in a cell is a system to a molecular biologist. A system is, then, whatever we choose to focus our attention upon for study and examination.


There are a number of problems that involve passive observation of a pattern or process not under the researcher's manipulative control. In these circumstances a tight experimental design is sometimes not possible, or alternatively the problem may not be open to classical scientific method. In many fields, for example astronomy, geology, and economics, such problems are the rule rather than the exception. A common example from ecology is the environmental impact assessment (EIA). As Eberhardt and Thomas (1991) put it the basic problem in impact studies is that evaluation of the environmental impact of a single installation of, say, a nuclear power station on a river, cannot very well be formulated in the context of the classical agricultural experimental design, since there is only one 'treatment' - the particular power-generating station. In fact the problem is even more intractable EIA studies do not test hypotheses. However, EIAs are still necessary. That they generate only weak...


Systematics is the study of the diversity of organisms and the relationships among these organisms. Systematics is a natural outgrowth of the need for humans to characterize and categorize the world around them. It is one of the oldest scientific disciplines, with roots in antiquity and a formal scientific literature reaching back to Aristotle. It is the basic comparative science of biology. Comparative sciences such as systematics and astronomy use the similarities and differences among the things studied in an effort to comprehend them and their behavior. This is in contrast to the experimental sciences, in which the outcomes of controlled experiments are used to acquire understanding.

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

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