The following example illustrates how results of Bayesian and likelihood-based methods can differ from those obtained using null hypothesis significance testing.1 Consider a researcher who is studying the population ecology of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a particular interest in the sex ratio of pouch young of mothers in poor physical condition. Assume that the researcher samples 12 female koalas in poor condition each with an offspring in its pouch (pouch young). Three of the offspring are male and nine are female. Based on this study, what can we say about the sex ratio of koalas produced by females in poor physical condition?
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