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Kill It, Clean It, Cook It, Eat It Wild Game Hunting

Kill It, Clean It, Cook It, Eat It is a goldmine of surefire techniques of hunting, cleaning, and cooking a game in the most traditional and appropriate of ways. The writer of this book, Haley Heathman, has literally poured in all her knowledge of hunting and cleaning a game learned from her Hunting Guide hubby and all those hunters she had the privilege of meeting, and cooking learned from working side by side with renown chefs at her job as a Yacht Stewardess. The book contains 6 unique chapters related to the hunting, cleaning, and cooking of 6 unique wild game species found in North America. All of these chapters have been written in utter simplicity without trivializing the importance of the subject and the credibility of the matter explaining it. Because of this, even a novice hunter can educate himself on all the proven methods of hunting the 6 species differently and carrying out all the rest of the steps like a pro. But this book is not only intended for the beginners. The expert hunters can also learn a lot of things, for example cooking a game, in mere days. The benefits of Kill It, Clean It, Cook It, Eat It, are further increased and augmented by 3 unavoidable bonuses, containing a cookbook from Tanorria Askew, 4 audio DVDs of 4 interviews with expert hunters, and an audio transcript of those. For anyone who wants to live the American tradition of hunting and help revive it, this book is surely a goldmine of knowledge. Read more here...

Kill It Clean It Cook It Eat It Wild Game Hunting Summary


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Author: Haley Heathman
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Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

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Deer Hunting Secrets Exposed

This eBook guide from pro deer hunter Charlie Hicks gives you all of the tips and tricks that you need in order to bag the biggest buck of any season you've ever had. You no longer have to daydream about getting that amazing buck at last, showing him off to all your friends, and mounting the head on your wall to add to the hunting-lodge decor of your home. You are now able to get all of the pro tips from Charlie that you need in order to have a great hunting season and find bucks no matter what season it is or where you are. What scents you should use, where bucks can be found, what scouting methods you should use to find them All of this and more is covered in Deer Hunting Secrets: Exposed from Charlie Hicks. Start you dream hunt with this eBook!

Deer Hunting Secrets Exposed Summary

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Author: Charlie Hicks
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Price: $17.00

From Ganesha to the present

Big-game hunting in Africa and Asia was a distinct cultural phenomenon among the colonial rulers. The primary motive behind hunting was presumably the Hunt, interpreted by historian John MacKenzie as a contemporary rediscovery of medieval chivalry linked to ritualized warfare and killing and symbolizing manliness. Environmental historian Mahesh Rangarajan's interpretation goes a step further. The elephant, like the tiger, was just another large denizen of the jungle whose killing symbolized for the British the conquest of a vast subcontinent by a small group of armed men. Hunting more than ever was an analog of warfare, and until late into the nineteenth century, many British governors gave out rewards for killing elephants. Hunting for sport and animal control resulted in large-scale slaughter of elephants across the Indian subcontinent, Burma, and Sri Lanka (see chapter 8).

The Behavioural Inheritance System

A lion mother is an excellent hunter and therefore she is able to feed many offsprings and distribute her hunting genes, covering her ability to make a fast hunting tactic and to run rapidly in the right moment, to them. Her lion cubs will most probably survive because they obtain sufficient food and they will to a high extent inherit her excellent hunting genes. In addition, she can teach them her hunting strategy and will have more time to care for them in general due to her successful hunting. So, the cubs not only survive and it means that the genes also survive, but also the better nursing and the better hunting strategy survive through the learning behaviour from one generation to next. In accordance with the glossary of the computer age, we can say that not only the hardware the genes but also the software the know-how survives. It is interesting in this context that the heritage of the good hardware will enhance the possibilities of the software to survive.

Effects on Populations

Another important effect of exploitation is that it can change size and age structure of a population. Most exploitation targets older or larger individuals, for example, in timber harvesting, trophy hunting, and fishing. Large individuals are often quickly removed and continued exploitation in combination with increased reproduction may shift the populations toward smaller and younger individuals (Figure 1). This can be

The How And Why Of Home Ranges

When the home ranges of a male and female weasel overlap, the hunting activities of each reduce the prey available to the other. Each catches voles and, probably more important, alerts prey while hunting, making the prey wary and harder to catch (Chapter 7). Female weasels simply tolerate the loss of prey to males, except perhaps in a small, core area worth defending, but have smaller appetites and greater searching efficiency instead. Males, however, benefit from overlapping ranges that provide information on where females live, which is especially useful in the breeding season (Powell 1994). Field data confirm that home ranges often overlap, particularly between sexes (Murphy & Dowding 1994, 1995 Alterio 1998), but many individuals have separate core ranges that do not overlap.

Ecological Effects of Hunting

Their range (e.g., bison (Bos bison)), or threatened (e.g., most whale species) by commercial hunting is staggering. Such changes wrought by hunting often have ripple effects throughout ecosystems. For instance, as domestic livestock replaced extirpated bison, brown-headed cow-birds (Molothrus ater) adopted the sedentary lifestyle of their domestic symbionts and became North America's most notorious avian brood parasite. Recreational hunting has had more mixed ecological impacts. In some contexts (e.g., Medieval and Colonial Europe), hunting motivated preservation of forest ecosystems as game preserves. Aristocratic sport hunting, however, nearly led to extinction of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Ecological Effects on Hunting

Because successful hunting requires a clear understanding of the relationship between the prey species and its biotic and abiotic environment, hunters were probably the first ecologists. In early human history, hunting made most people ecologists by necessity. Now millions of recreational ecologists study the relationships between wildlife and their environments with hopes of increasing the likelihood of successful hunts. Because hunters were among the first ecologists, and continue to study relationships among game species, other organisms, and the abiotic environment, ecosystems shaped and shape the practice of hunting. Hunting generally occurs in areas where prey species predictably occur. Like nonhuman predators, hunters have always focused their efforts in areas and at times where prey species meet critical needs (e.g., food, cover, rest, reproduction). In arctic areas hunters target seals at breathing holes in ice, in arid areas hunters wait near watering holes, and salt and...

Interaction modification

It is worth pointing out that 'interaction modification' is often, and quite rightly, considered as a principally different type of indirect effect. By coupling interaction modifications with other types of relationships (e.g., trophic), one may arrive at possibilities of numerous (including very complex) relationships. One of the more simple of such combinations may be exemplified (Figure 2) with an indirect effect of grazers and certain agricultural practices on the population density of foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and the rodent Marmota bobac in Eastern Europe (V. Takarsky, personal communication) lower grazing rates lead to a denser and taller grass cover, enabling more successful hunting of predators. Conversely, higher grazing rates lead to a lower grass cover, thus enhancing the detection of predators by the rodents. As a result, increase in grazing may have an indirect positive effect on the Marmota bobac population, and an indirect negative effect on the population of foxes.

Components of foraging

For a predator, successful hunting represents an increase in fitness through higher reproduction rates and improved chances for survival of its offspring, whereas for the prey it represents decreased fitness through mortality. Predators and prey have coevolved complex characteristics and tactics with which they can effectively capture prey or be protected against predation. The process of foraging can be characterized by four successive phases (Gerritsen and Strickler 1977)

Expected number of attacks

Second, consider birds hunted by Accipiter hawks, which move a great deal while hunting. Because the hawks seek them out, greater foraging effort will not cause foragers to encounter more predators, but it may make them more likely to be killed when they do encounter a predator. In this case, the constant k includes a constant attack rate, a, and the exponent, z, reflects how foraging effort increases the probability of being killed in an attack. This logic applies when predators move rapidly and foragers are relatively immobile.

Leafminers And Their Parasitoids As Model Systems

This leafminer is attacked by a large array of mostly polyphagous parasitic wasps of the Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea, in particular Eulophidae and Braconidae (Casas and Baumgartner, 1990). The mortality from parasitism can easily reach 80 . This lifestyle is clearly not a good protection against attacks by parasitoids. Sympiesis sericeicornis is one of the most important parasitoids of this host and also one of the most agile while hunting on a mine. This is the species we have most studied and the one we have generally in mind when speaking of parasitoids.

Population changes in elephants of North Bunyoro Uganda

The relative abundances of various age classes for 1966 were thus proportionately scaled down by a factor of 0.44. The model-derived population for 1946 was now calculated to be about 16,000 elephants. To this, the 6,000 elephants killed during 1946-1966 in controlled shooting and sport hunting had to be added, giving a total of 22,000 elephants for the 1946 North Bunyoro population. The overall population trends at North Bunyoro were 22,000 elephants in 1946, declining to 9,400 by 1966 and further projected to 7,900 by the year 1971.

Exotics As A Form Of Biodiversity

But the early managers of these national parks defined preservation and protection in ways that seem incredible today. The contemporary attitude classified wildlife species as either good or bad animals. Big game species such as elk, deer, moose, bison, and big-horn sheep fell into the favored category. Park administrators felt that national parks existed to preserve and protect those animals. Anything that threatened them, whether poachers, forest fires, or predators, had to be controlled. Based on that premise, predators, especially wolves, became bad animals, and any action that killed them off could be justified.

Some Facts From The History Of Conservation

By the 1920s national parks were to be found on all continents. In 1924 the Soviet Union established the first of its national reserves (zapovedniki). Conservation - oriented management of forest lands also became more widely accepted throughout the world. The scientific basis for the management of wild grazing lands for the sustained production of forage for livestock was spread all over the world. Aldo Leopold in the US in 1933 wrote a textbook on game management. This book focused on the conservation and management of wild animal life for such purposes as sport hunting and fishing on a sustained basis.

Faunal Occurrence and Hunting Indices

Figure 12.3 is the distribution of composite hunting index for the 233, 10 x 10 km quadrats with > 5 km of recce coverage. While hunting was widespread throughout the park, intensive hunting was concentrated in the eastern quarter of the northern sector and along the Lomela River. Large areas of the southern sector, in contrast, had low hunting indices. Hunting indices in the corridor between the two park sectors were comparable to indices in many areas within the park itself, and were notably lower than indices for large areas of the northern sector of the park.

Total harvest H versus harvest rate h

In the models and discussion presented above, harvest has been referred to as the total number of individuals removed by exploitation, and harvest rate as the probability that an individual in the population prior to the hunting season dies as a result of hunting. For many forms of exploitation, animals may be killed as part of the exploitation process, yet not retrieved by hunters (e.g. Anderson and Burnham 1976 Pollock et al. 1994). For example, birds may be shot by hunters and their carcasses not located, or birds may be injured and escape the hunter only to die subsequently as a result of gunshot wounds. In such situations, the term harvest is typically reserved for the number of animals retrieved by hunters, whereas kill is sometimes used to refer to the number of animals that die as a result of exploitation.

Harvest estimation when harvest is legal and observable

On-site survey methods generally fall into one of two categories access-point surveys and roving surveys. Access-point surveys are appropriate for situations in which hunting takes place in a local area (or series of such areas) to which access is restricted to a relatively small number of entry points. Wildlife or conservation officers are then stationed at a sample of these access points during a sample of possible hunting times, and hunters exiting the area are stopped and their harvests recorded. Visits to access points by conservation officers can be selected randomly with known probability from the possible points and from the possible times during the hunting season, and harvest can be estimated. Although the statistical framework for such sampling has been best developed for fisheries (Robson 1960 Robson and Jones 1989 Pollock et al. 1994), surveys based on encounters at hunter check stations have been used successfully for birds (e.g. Mikula et al. 1972 Wright 1978). Off-site...

Harvest estimation when harvest is illegal

Illegal harvest can be of two types that sometimes require different methods of estimation and investigation. One type of illegal harvest occurs during open hunting seasons and involves violations of bag limits (shooting more birds than legally permitted) and of species regulations (shooting protected species of birds in addition to birds for which the season is open). The other type of illegal harvest does not occur within the context of an open season and includes virtually any other type of illegal hunting activity, such as targeting protected species, illegal commercial harvest, and hunting at illegal times (e.g. at night). Illegal harvest during the hunting season is frequently investigated by clandestine observation of hunters. North American studies of illegal activities in waterfowl hunting often employ a spy blind technique (e.g. Mikula et al. 1972 Martin and Carney 1977 Nieman and Caswell 1989). Roving hunter checks by conservation officers can also provide information on...

Measuring harvest rate

The most straightforward approach using marked birds requires a sample of nt birds to be individually marked before the hunting season in year t. If rt of these marked birds are shot and retrieved by hunters during the subsequent hunting season and reported to conservation officers, or to a national bird banding data repository, then we can estimate a new quantity, recovery rate (f), as

Top Down Conservation Planning

The attempt to confer absolute protection to the flora and fauna of regions in Africa has caused other calamities also. For example, the creation of national parks and wildlife preserves in Kenya and Tanzania resulted in the expulsion of Massai stockbreeders. While hunting and logging diminished significantly inside the parks, the problem shifted to the outside animals were slaughtered as soon as they crossed park boundaries. Kenya is said to have lost, in this way, half of its wildlife outside protected areas in less than 20 years (Norton-

Regulation of the trade in ivory

If the consumer demand for raw ivory and ivory products were to be met largely through the supply of legal ivory (i.e., tusks from elephants dying naturally or from the occasional trophy hunting), there would have been no need for elaborate controls on trade. At the peak of the recent wave of poaching during the 1980s, it was estimated that 80 of tusks shipped from Africa were illegal. Similarly, at least two of three Indian elephant tusks used by carvers (who also used imported African elephant tusks) in southern India at this time came from poached elephants. The regulation of trade in ivory, with all its complex dimensions, has thus become central to conservation strategies for elephants. Each country has its own laws and regulations on the local sale and possession of tusks or ivory articles. Most African countries permit local trade in ivory, as do several Asian countries. India is one of the few elephant range states to impose a total ban on all internal trade in ivory,...

Proportion or allowing constant escapement

Another strategy leaves a fixed number of breeding individuals at the end of each hunting season (constant escapement), an approach that involves the even greater expense of continuous monitoring through the hunting season. Constant escapement is a particularly safe option because it rules out the accidental removal of all the breeding individuals before breeding has occurred. Constant escapement is particularly useful for annual species because they lack the buffer provided by immature individuals in longer lived species (Milner-Gulland & Mace, 1998). The Falkland Islands government uses a constant escapement strategy for the annual Loligo squid. Stock sizes are assessed weekly from mid-season onwards and the fishery is closed when the ratio of stocks in the presence and absence of fishing falls to 0.3-0.4. After 10 years of this management regime the squid fishery shows good signs of sustainability (Figure 15.10).

Effects of pest control

Recreational hunting is intrinsically safer than commercial hunting because sport hunters operate on an implicit discount rate of zero. Sport hunting hence has an enviable record of conserving hunted stocks. Instances of gross overexploitation are rare but not unknown. The overhunting of the forty-mile caribou herd in Yukon has already been described in Section 10.7.1. Recreational hunting caused this extinction. The countries of the Arabian Peninsula are essentially sea frontages, the inland boundaries being little more than lines on a map. There is little control over activities in the hinterlands. Oil company employees and their followers used company trucks for hunting trips and seemed to have been at least partly responsible for the decline. Then there were the large motorized hunting expeditions originating mainly from Saudi Arabia. These were self-contained convoys that included fuel and water tankers. The vehicles and support facilities allowed large areas to be swept each day...

Ungulate Hunting and Pastoralism

Acterized by what anthropologists call the cattle complex. Cattle serve important socioeconomic functions, not only in providing milk, meat, horn, and hides but also as property, bridewealth, and an instrument for the maintenance of kinship ties. Dependence on cattle complexes has occasionally led to disastrous consequences for humans, however, along with the benefits. During the 1890s a historic epidemic of rinderpest, a deadly viral cattle plague carried by beasts imported from India, struck and killed some 90 percent of domesticated cattle and buffalo, as well as many of the wild ungulates then extant in southern Africa it led to economic collapse and widespread famine. The San people of Botswana found that the cattle industry, supported by European colonialists, encroached on their wild grazing lands, which were converted to pasture for domesticated livestock. During the 1950s more than 60 percent of the remaining big game in Botswana's Kalahari region, including wildebeests and...

The Market Value of Biodiversity

Another important market value of biodiversity is tourism. For example, it is estimated that the direct economic benefit of Wyoming's big game animals, from tourism and hunting, is about 1 billion, or 1,000 for every large animal. The total value to the tourism industry of wildlife in all North American national parks is estimated at more than 70 billion. Estimates of the value of biodiversity may be made using survey techniques or by what is called hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing imputes the value of an attribute by comparing cases in which it is and is not present. For example, a house on a lake without loons may be valued at 200,000, and a similar house on a similar lake with loons may be valued at 210,000. The presence of loons on the lake, then, adds 10,000 to the value of the second house. Economists can use this and other such hedonic values to piece together an estimate of the economic value of loons on that lake.

History of the ivory trade with special reference to Africa

It was during the seventeenth century that ivory exploitation intensified over a large area of Africa. This was the period of colonial expansion by the European powers. The exploration of Africa and southern Asia was accompanied by a thirst for resources to fuel the emerging industrial nations. Ivory was a much-sought-after commodity for knife handles, combs, toys, piano keys, billiard balls, furniture, or works of art. Native hunting tribes initially provided the ivory demand of the Europeans, to be supplanted later by white hunters and by organized slaughter. Big-game hunting by the colonialists provided trophy-size ivory, adding to the romance of the quest for white gold, a cultural phenomenon interpreted as a contemporary version of ritualized killing (see chapter 2). Hunting was not confined only to shooting large animals for tusks. It extended to more intensive slaughter of elephants, ostensibly to control crop depredation. Thus, the Hunt also served to appease the native people...

Small Mammals

All weasels tend to intersperse foraging expeditions with periods of rest (Erlinge 1979b Sandell 1988 Zielinski 2000). They may hunt for less than an hour, or for several hours, then return to a den. In winter, they often sleep most of the night, while in summer, females with growing young forage almost incessantly. All of the weasels can travel up to 2 km in a single trip of a few hours, especially when food is scarce, but in times of plenty they may travel only a few hundred meters on each hunting trip.

Band recovery

Band recovery data can also be used to draw inferences about bird movement. We generally envisage two sampling situations. In one, banding and recovery occur at different times of the year and at different locations. For example, in North America, it is common for banding of ducks to occur on the breeding grounds, whereas the hunting season recoveries occur during the fall and winter. In this situation, inference is sometimes possible about movement from a particular In the other sampling situation, banding and recovery occur on the same areas. Winter banding of North American waterfowl occurs following the hunting season in late winter, whereas early winter recoveries occur in the same general locations. Under this sampling situation, multistate band recovery models may be useful (Schwarz 1993 Schwarz et al. 1993). These models may be viewed as special cases of multistate capture recapture models and involve the same kind of thinking and modeling as described in the previous section.

Wildlife harvesting

It differs according to whether the population is increasing or whether it is stable, and whether or not the environment fluctuates from year to year. Wildlife is harvested for many different purposes. Sport hunting usually takes a sample of the population during a restricted season and often with a restriction placed on the sex and age of the harvest. Harvesting for sport is a complex activity whose product is as much a quality of experience as it is meat or trophies. On the other hand the purpose of commercial hunting or hunting for food is simply to harvest a product such as meat and skins.

Adaptive management

In North America, duck harvest is regulated by annually setting a common sport hunting season for a number of species, with the length of the season dependent on the current status of the duck populations and the conditions of the breeding habitat (Nichols et al. 1995 Williams and Johnson 1995 Johnson et al. 1997 Williams 1997). Presently, the status of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) is used as a surrogate for the status of most other duck species. An explicit adaptive management approach is used to choose the regulations each year (Johnson et al. 1997). The two fundamental uncertainties about population dynamics and responses to management that are being addressed by this approach are (1) whether the effect of harvest is additive to, or compensatory with, natural mortality and (2) the degree to which reproduction depends on density four alternative models of Mallard population dynamics capture this uncertainty. An optimal state-dependent harvest policy is calculated based on the...


Livelihood co-opted by pastoralists, gardeners, and agriculturalists. Those bands who remained were gradually assimilated into neighboring peoples. The Khoisan people in the arid Kalahari region are the largest African group still practicing a hunter-gatherer way of life. They are the heirs to an ecosystem that has provided continuous subsistence for at least 9,000 years. What is today a desertlike environment went through wetter periods over the past 11,000 years, and pockets of water moisture remain below the surface of the sand. Drought-resistant grasses, fruit trees, and thorn bushes draw on this moisture and provide fodder for herds of large game. In the Okavango swamplands of the northern Kalahari, fishing rather than game hunting was the principal subsistence activity. By 10,000 years ago African hunter-gatherers had successfully developed tools and microlithic blade technology for acquiring food. Axes, projectile points, and traps were used in forest areas in the Middle and...


Figure 11.2 Mounted head of European bison Bison bonasus, which was amongst the big-game animals ruthlessly hunted by big-game hunters more interested in the thrill of the chase than conservation. This particular species, however, is no longer in danger of extinction (see also Section 5.8.2). (Drawn by Peter R. Hobson.) Figure 11.2 Mounted head of European bison Bison bonasus, which was amongst the big-game animals ruthlessly hunted by big-game hunters more interested in the thrill of the chase than conservation. This particular species, however, is no longer in danger of extinction (see also Section 5.8.2). (Drawn by Peter R. Hobson.)

Home range size

The big-game hunting literature of colonial Asia and Africa has many tales of the propensity of elephants to trek long distances using well-trodden paths, often across steep mountain slopes. Elephant bulls and family herds usually restrict their daily movements, as measured in a straight line, to a few kilometers or at most 10-20 km, but exceptional distances of 90-180 km have been observed in the dry Etosha region of Namibia. Of greater ecological interest is the range size of elephants on a seasonal or annual basis. Some of the earlier scientific studies in both continents used observations of resightings of elephants identified from morphological features or painted with numbers to obtain crude estimates of home range size. In one such early study, Don Rodgers and William Elder immobilized and conspicuously marked 37 male elephants in Zambia's Luangwa Valley. Though home range areas could not be obtained from subsequent resightings, one observation was that the bulls were...


Big-game safaris and trophy hunting are major businesses in eastern and southern Africa. Game parks, wildlife reservations, and nature preserves attract substantial foreign currency. Africans are building more lodges and modern guest facilities, in a delicate balancing act between preservation and overuse of land and water. The endangered large mammals of Africa are at the mercy of governments, local needs, tourists, and the travel industry. Collaboration and cooperative planning among the various stakeholders need to support set-asides of land and water, conservation activi In South Africa there is increasing local involvement in big-game safaris and expanding economic development in parks and wildlife habitat preserves. Game parks and nature reserves are popular destinations for tourists, and ecotourism is the most rapidly expanding tourism category in South Africa. Tourism now accounts for an estimated 5 to 10 percent of the country's gross domestic product and employs more than...

Hunting Mastery Selected Tips

Hunting Mastery Selected Tips

Deer hunting is an interesting thing that reminds you of those golden old ages of 19th centuries, where a handsome hunk well equipped with all hunting material rides on horse searching for his target animal either for the purpose of displaying his masculine powers or for enticing and wooing his lady love.

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