References

Sprengel, C.K., Discovery of the secret nature in the structure and fertilization of flowers, in Floral Biology Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants, Lloyd, D.G. and Barrett, S.C. H., Eds., Chapman and Hall, New York, 1996, p. 65. 2. Proctor, M., Yeo, P., and Lack, A., The Natural History of Pollination, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 1996, p. 479. 3. Darwin, C., On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids Are Fertilized by Insects, Murray, London, 1862....

Evolution of Suction Feeding

The first fluid-feeding insects employed a lapping or sponging mechanism to imbibe their liquid meals. This modality, which uses capillary forces for fluid uptake, is widespread among insects, including those that specifically visit plants to consume floral nectars 27 . The elongation of mouthparts is derived and enables insects to develop a pressure gradient along the food canal, allowing them to consume nectar from the concealed nectaries found in long, tubular corollas (Figure 9.1). This...

Mechanical stability of slender tree stems 141 The Mechanical Control of Growth

Extensive research since the 1970s has demonstrated in many herbaceous and woody species that several growth parameters are affected in response to external mechanical loading see 116 for a recent review . This general mechanoperceptive syndrome is known as thigmomorphogenesis 114 and is likely to be found in most erect plants, although variability exists in quantitative amounts between both species and genotypes see, e.g., 117-119 . As shown in Figure 1.4, the major responses of trees to a...