References

Sprengel, C.K., Das entdeckte Geheimnis der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Pflanzen, Vieweg, Berlin, 1793. 2. Darwin, C., The Various Continuances by Which Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects, John Murray, London, 1862. 3. Hildebrand, F., Ueber die Befruchtung der Salviaarten mit Hilfe von Insekten, Jahrb. Wiss. Bot., 4, 451, 1865. 4. M ller, H., The Mechanism of Flowers, Macmillan, London, 1883. 5. Correns, C., Zur Biologie und Anatomie der Salvienbl the, Jahrb. Wiss. Bot., 22, 190,...

Evolution of Suction Feeding

The first fluid-feeding insects employed a lapping or sponging mechanism to imbibe their liquid meals. This modality, which uses capillary forces for fluid uptake, is widespread among insects, including those that specifically visit plants to consume floral nectars 27 . The elongation of mouthparts is derived and enables insects to develop a pressure gradient along the food canal, allowing them to consume nectar from the concealed nectaries found in long, tubular corollas (Figure 9.1). This...

Biomechanics and ecological speciation

As ecological speciation progresses, the adaptive divergence of phenotypic traits can presumably strengthen any number of isolating barriers, both pre- and postmating. For the purposes of this chapter, we focus our attention on the role of biomechanics in premating isolation, and specifically in relation to mating displays. Mating displays include ritualized movements such as visual or vocal signaling, or the presentation of static traits such as exaggerated morphological characters 36 . Many...

Mechanical stability of slender tree stems 141 The Mechanical Control of Growth

Extensive research since the 1970s has demonstrated in many herbaceous and woody species that several growth parameters are affected in response to external mechanical loading see 116 for a recent review . This general mechanoperceptive syndrome is known as thigmomorphogenesis 114 and is likely to be found in most erect plants, although variability exists in quantitative amounts between both species and genotypes see, e.g., 117-119 . As shown in Figure 1.4, the major responses of trees to a...