B

Bacteria attached, 289 grazers on, 273

grazing down of size range of, 287 orientation process of, 290 swimming in random walk, 290, 291 Bacterial flagella, fluid dynamics of, 276 Balancing Reward, 110 Bauhinia, 45, 47 Bauhinia guianensis, 38, 49, 52 Beak size evolution, 310 Beam mechanics, 19 Bee(s)

euglossine, 201, 202 long-tongued, 187, 190, 192 mechanics of lapping by, 199 proboscis imitation of, 138 length, 140 Beetle adhesive pads, 150 Behavioral mimicry in insects, 213-229 Batesian mimicry, 213-214 behavioral mimicry, 215-224

behavioral mimicry in insects, 216-217 flight mimicry, 218-224 mimicry in terrestrial locomotion, 217-218 morphological mimicry, 214-215 Mullerian mimicry, 214 Behavioral performance fitness and, 233

reproducible individual variation in, 234 short-term reproducibility of, 243 Bending tests, climbing plant, 40 Berberis vulgaris, 149, 152 Biomechanical force instruments, 114 Biomechanics, aim of, 2 Bite capacity, maximal, 110

depth, horse-cattle comparison, 116

force force transducers used in assessing, 114

lizard, 114

measurement of, 111

modeling of, 111

prediction of, 111, 112

quantification of, 102 procurement, 104, 115 Biting effort determination of, 110 quantification of, 115, 117 Blade buoyancy, see Southern bullkelp

Durvillaea, role of blade buoyancy and reconfiguration in mechanical adaptation of

Body mass compensation mechanisms for, 117 -specific power output, 256 Body size acoustic signals and, 307 biomechanics and, 307 Bombus hortorum, 188 terrestris, 126

forces exerted by, 134, 135 maximum forces measured for, 136 Bombylius major, 188 Bos taurus, 102 Bougainvillea, 45, 54 Bougainvillea glabra, 48 Branch anchorage, climbing plants, 54 Branch-angle climbers, 39, 46, 53 Branching topography, conduit diameter across, 88

Brassica oleracea, 149, 150, 152 Brocchinia reducta, 160, 171 Bromus willdenowii, 117 Brownian motions, 290 Bryozoans, chimney-forming, 289 Buckling height, 7

safety factor, decrease of, 13 stem, 9 tree, 8, 9 Bufo, 232

marinus, 240 viridus, 242, 243 Buzz pollination, 124

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