C

Calamus, 45

acanthospathus, 48, 51 tetradactylus, 48 Calcium-specific ion channels, 293 Calliphora vomitoria, 160 Camponotus mus, 195 Campsis radicans, 89, 91, 92, 93 Capsicum annuum, 124 Catopsis berteroniana, 160

Cattle, head movement of, 115 Ceramius hispanicus, 193 metanotalis, 188 Cervus elaphus, 102 Chelidonium majus, 149, 152, 155 Chenopodium album, 149, 152 Chloroplasts, 290-291 Choeronycteris mexicana, 188 Cholodny Went theory, 20 Chrysolina fastuosa, 148, 149, 150 Cilia, 276, 277 Clematis flammula var. maritima, 49 recta, 48, 53 vitalba, 49 Climbing plants, diversity of mechanical architectures in, 35-59 attachment modes, 37 attachment types, 57 bending tests, 40 branch anchorage, 54 discussion, 53-57

climbing growth strategies in monocots and other plants without secondary growth, 55-56 ecological diversity of climbers among different groups, 56-57 mechanical properties and attachment of dicotyledonous climbers, 53-55 flexural stiffness, 40 host tree and, 39 importance of climbers, 36 mechanical constraints and types of attachment, 37-40 mechanical structure and development of climbers, 36-37 methods and materials, 40-44

calculation of structural Young's modulus, 43-44

experimental protocols, 40-43 sampling, 44 results, 44-53

branch-angle climbers, 46-53 hook climbers, 45-46 leaning climbers, 53 tendril climbers, 45 twining climbers, 44-45 semi-self-supporting, 54 structural Young's modulus, 48-50, 56 Coevolutionary processes, 164 COI, see Cytochrome oxidase subunit I Compression wood, 17 Concealed nectar extraction apparatus, 186 Conduit furcation number, 87, 90

Condylocarpon guianense, 38, 49

Conifer forests, windstorms and, 23

Conifer wood, support vs. transport conflict in, 94

Constant stress hypothesis, 16

Contamination hypothesis, see Insect attachment structures, plant waxes and CorelDraw, 258 Corizoneura longirostris, 188 Crack propagation, 105 Creep, plant stem and, 43 Croton, 46, 54 nuntians, 48, 52 pullei, 48 Ctenosaura similes, 234 Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 167

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