Contents

2.1 Introduction 36

2.1.1 Importance of Climbers 36

2.1.2 Mechanical Structure and Development of Climbers 36

2.1.3 Attachment Modes of Climbers 37

2.1.4 Mechanical Constraints and Types of Attachment 37

2.2 Methods and Materials 40

2.2.1 Experimental Protocols 40

2.2.2 Calculation of Structural Young's Modulus 43

2.2.3 Sampling 44

2.3 Results: Mechanical Properties and Type of Attachment 44

2.3.1 Twining Climbers 44

2.3.2 Tendril Climbers 45

2.3.3 Hook Climbers 45

2.3.4 Branch-Angle Climbers 46

2.3.5 Leaning Climbers 53

2.4 Discussion 53

2.4.1 Mechanical Properties and Attachment of Dicotyledonous Climbers 53

2.4.2 Climbing Growth Strategies in Monocots and Other Plants without Secondary Growth 55

2.4.3 Ecological Diversity of Climbers among Different Groups 56

2.5 Conclusions 57

References 57

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