Contents

8.1 Introduction 164

8.2 Ecology and Evolution of Wax Barriers in the Ant-Plant Genus Macaranga 165

8.2.1 Protection of Specific Ant Partners against Generalist Ants 165

8.2.2 Effect of Wax Barriers on Host Specificity 165

8.2.3 Evolution of Macaranga Wax Barriers 167

8.2.4 Adaptive Syndromes of Ant Associations in Waxy and

Nonwaxy Macaranga Ant-Plants 168

8.2.4.1 Ant Traits 168

8.2.4.2 Host Plant Traits 168

8.2.4.3 Evolution of Adaptive Syndromes 169

8.3 Biomechanics of Wax Running in Crematogaster (Decacrema) Ants 170

8.3.1 Tarsal Attachment Devices in Ants 170

8.3.2 Mechanisms of Slipperiness 171

8.3.3 Mechanisms of Wax Running 172

8.3.3.1 Attachment Force vs. Climbing Performance: Is Wax Running Capacity Based on Greater Attachment or Superior Locomotion? 173

8.3.3.2 Comparative Morphometry of Wax Runners and Non-Wax Runners 174

Mechanical Benefit of Long Legs for Climbing Ants 176

Kinematics of Climbing in Crematogaster

(Decacrema) Wax Runners and Non-Wax Runners 177

8.4 Conclusions Acknowledgments References

180 180

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