Contents

6.1 Introduction 124

6.1.1 Biomechanics and Bee Pollination 124

6.1.2 A Case Study: The Staminal Lever Mechanism in Salvia 125

6.2 Materials and Methods 126

6.2.1 Materials 126

6.2.2 Forces of Flower-Visiting Bees 127

6.2.3 Force Measurements on Salvia Flowers and Staminal Levers 132

6.3 Results 134

6.3.1 Forces Exerted by B. terrestris and A. mellifera 134

6.3.2 Forces and Flower Visitors of Salvia 134

6.4 Discussion 136

6.4.1 Insect Forces 136

6.4.2 Observed Flower Visitors 137

6.4.3 Forces Measured in Salvia Flowers 138

6.4.3.1 Critical Discussion of the Applied Methods 138

6.4.3.2 Comparison of Levers and Internal Barriers in

Flowers 139

6.4.4 Comparing Insect Forces to the Barriers in Flowers 140

6.4.5 Proboscis Length, Flower-Tube Length, and Forces Exerted by Visiting Bees 140

6.5 Conclusion 141

Acknowledgments 143

References 143

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