Contents

9.1 Introduction 185

9.2 Functional Diversity of Long Mouthparts 186

9.2.1 Evolution of Suction Feeding 186

9.2.2 Anatomical Considerations 187

9.2.2.1 Proboscis-Sealing Mechanisms 192

9.2.2.2 Tip Region 194

9.2.2.3 Fluid Pumps 195

9.3 Feeding Mechanics and Foraging Ecology 195

9.3.1 Proboscis Mobility and Floral Handling 196

9.3.2 Factors Influencing Fluid Handling 198

9.3.3 Environmental Influences on Floral Nectar Constituents 199

9.3.4 Have Nectar Sugar Concentrations Evolved to Match

Pollinator Preferences? 201

9.3.5 Temperature and Optimal Nectar Foraging 203

9.4 Concluding Remarks 204

Acknowledgments 204

References 205

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