Contents

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Murray's Law 86

4.3 Applying Murray's Law to Xylem 88

4.4 Importance of the Conduit Furcation Number (F) 90

4.5 Does Xylem Follow Murray's Law? 91

4.6 Does Tree Wood Not Follow Murray's Law? 92

4.7 Nature of the Mechanical Constraint on Hydraulic Efficiency 94

4.8 Da Vinci's Rule 95

4.9 Developmental and Physiological Constraints on Transport Efficiency 95

4.10 Comparative Efficiency of Conifer vs. Angiosperm Tree Wood 96

4.11 Conclusions 97

Acknowledgments 97

References 97

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