F

Fagus sylvatica L., 23 Fallopia albertii, 49 Feeding adaptations, 309 behavior, body mass and, 116 diffusion, 283 filter, 283

mating displays and, 309 rate, turbulence and, 283 station, 104 time (FT), 203 value (FV), 105 Festuca arundincea, 109, 117 Filter feeder(s), 283 coexistence of, 284 dynamic system of, 287 idealized, 285 Finches, Darwin's, 304, 311, 313 Fine roots, 11 Fish measures of performance, 232 teleost, power output among, 254 Fisher's exact test, 173 Flagella hispid, 276 smooth, 275 Flagellates, 273, 289 Flexible organisms, drag coefficient, 64 Floral food sources, mechanical barriers limiting access to, 125

Flower(s)

comparing insect forces to barriers in, 140 comparing levers and internal barriers in, 139 diurnally pollinated, 200 insect-pollinated, 200 sensor, force-distance diagrams, 139 tube, see Salvia flowers, biomechanics of -visiting bees, forces of, 127 Fluid-feeding insects, first, 186 Flume experiments drag forces and, 66 Durvillaea antarctica, 65

Foliage loss, bite procurement and, 104 Forage material ruminant tooth wear and, 113 tensile testing and, 112 Foraging ecology, nectar feeders and, 195 efficiency hummingbirds, 197 limiting factor in, 200 energetic cost of, 204 strategy, 104

mechanistic basis for, 116 plant fracture mechanics and, 109

Force

-barrier-hypothesis, 141 -canopy structure relationships, 111 -displacement curve, 106, 107 fracture, 107 production, 232 -speed tradeoffs, 310 transducer, 128 -velocity relationship, 253 Forest dynamics, 7

functional ecology, see Tree biomechanics and growth strategies gaps, formation of, 39 Four-point bending, 42 Fracture force, 107 Fraxinus pensylvanica, 89, 91, 92, 93 Friction drag, algal body, 76 Frog(s)

maximum jump distance of, 244 trunk muscles, 240 Frost number, 293 FT, see Feeding time FV, see Feeding value

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