This final category includes plants that simply lean against the surrounding vegetation without any specialized attachment, often showing a limited range of development and small body size. Species tested do not show significant changes in mechanical properties from young to old stages (Table 2.1; Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4). The two woody dicotyledons, Lonicera xylosteum and L. myrtillus, which resemble "unstable shrubs" show high values of Estr in old stages with values of L. xylosteum among the four stiffest stems tested of older stages. The small statured Clematis recta also shows very similar values of Estr in both younger apical parts of the plant and older basal stages of development.
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