Macaranga-ant mutualisms, slippery wax barriers and wax running in, 163-183 biomechanics of wax running in

Crematogaster (Decacrema) ants, 170-179

mechanisms of slipperiness, 171-172 mechanisms of wax running, 172-179 tarsal attachment devices in ants, 170 ecology and evolution of wax barriers in ant-plant genus Macaranga, 165-170 adaptive syndromes of ant associations in waxy and nonwaxy Macaranga ant-plants, 168-170 effect of wax barriers on host specificity, 165-167

evolution of Macaranga wax barriers, 167-168

protection of specific ant partners against generalist ants, 165 Machaerium sp., 49 Macrocystis pyrifera, 64

Mammalian herbivore diet, staple source of, 104 Mandibular length to body mass ratio, 116 Marginal Revenue, 110 Maripa scandens, 49 Mating display(s) body size and, 306 feeding and, 309 intricacy of, 309 locomotion and, 307 production, 314 MATLAB, 177 Maximal bite capacity, 110 Medicago sativa L., 15 Megachile sp., 135 MFA, see Microfibril angle Microbes, diversity of, 272 Microbial ecosystems, energetics of motion, 278 Microfibril angle (MFA), 5 Microorganisms drag of cell body, 288 energy budget used for motion, 281 feeding mechanisms, 282 feeding rate, 288 swimming efficiency, 279 swimming speed, 278 Moegistorhynchus longirostris, 187, 188 Monocotyledons, stem properties of, 105 Morus bombycis Koidz, 16 MOTUS software, 256

Murray's law and vascular architecture of plants, 85-100

applying Murray's law to xylem, 88-90 comparative efficiency of conifer vs.

angiosperm tree wood, 96-97 Da Vinci's rule, 95

developmental and physiological constraints on transport efficiency, 95-96 importance of conduit furcation number,

90-91 Murray's law, 86-88

nature of mechanical constraint on hydraulic efficiency, 94-95 optimum line, 90

tree wood not following Murray's law, 92-94 xylem following Murray's law, 91-92 Musca domestica, 158 Muscle(s)

activation rate, sprint speed and, 238 architecture, varied, 239 contraction dynamics, Hill's model of, 199 mass-specific power output, 254, 257, 259, 261

maximal shortening velocity of, 238 mechanics, 242 relaxation, rate of, 238 -shortening velocity, 239 superfast, 310

work loop-power output, 236

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