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Paraphysomonas, 277 Paraphysomonas vestita, 279 Paropsis charybdis, 158 Parthenocissus quinquefolia, 89, 93 Particulate organic matter (POM), 288 Passiflora glandulifera, 49 PDTREE program, 259, 260 Pea family, piston mechanism found in, 124 Pelagic ecosystem, 274 Pelagic microbial biota, 271 Performance tradeoffs, 241 traits, heritability of, 233 Peripheral wood, 6, 17 Pervillaea philipsonii, 49 Phenotypic divergence, 314 Photosynthetic tissues, water loss from, 85 Physical laws, living organisms and, 2 Physocephala rufipes, 191 Phytoplankton, 271, 274 Picea abies L., 23 Pinus sylvestris L., 12 Pipe model, leaf in, 91 Plant(s)

anchorage efficiency, 11

attachment modes, 44

biomechanics, database, 21

cell walls, microbial fermentation in, 102

climbing, see Climbing plants, diversity of mechanical architectures in fracture mechanics, 105, 107 foraging strategies and, 109 notch insensitivity and, 108 height, 6

fracture properties, 105 lamina, testing of under tension, 106 -pollinator relationships, 185, 186 secondary compounds, 164 self-supporting, 36 shade intolerant species, 22

surfaces of aerial organs in, 147 tensile strength, 118

waxes, see Insect attachment structures, plant waxes and Plectocomia himalayana, 45, 48, 51, 56 Pollen dispensing, 142 Pollination simulator, 133 Pollinator(s), see also Salvia flowers, biomechanics of body, pollen placement on, 142 buzzing, 124 generalist, 197

high-removal low-deposition, 142 preferences, nectar sugar concentrations and, 201 shifts, 142 POM, see Particulate organic matter Populus sp., 14 Power output(s)

coevolution of, 265 ecological correlates of, 264 instantaneous body mass-specific, 256 limb configuration and, 254 locomotor muscle system and, 254 muscle mass-specific, 257, 259, 261 Proboscis extension, 195, 197 fluid pumps, 195 mobility, 196

mouthpart elements of, 187 retraction, 195 -sealing mechanisms, 192 tip region, 194 Prostoma-containing species, 169 Protozoa filter-feeding, 285 growth rate, 279, 280, 286 helical movement of, 291 particle ingestion, 285 predation on, 289 swimming, 292 Pruinose plant surfaces, 150, 151 Prunus avium L. cv. "monteil", 15 domestica, 149, 152 Pseudacris crucifer, 234 Pseudotracheae, 194 Psilotum nudum, 91 Pteridomonas, 291 Pulmonary gas exchange, 307

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