1. James, R.S., Atringham, J.D., and Goldspink, D.F., The mechanical properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of the mouse in relation to their locomotory function, J. Exp. Biol., 198, 491, 1995.

2. Marsh, R.L., How muscles deal with real-world loads: the influence of length trajectory on muscle performance, J. Exp. Biol., 202, 3377, 1999.

3. Askew, G.N. and Marsh, R.L., The effects of length trajectory changes on the mechanical power output of mouse skeletal muscles, J. Exp. Biol., 200, 3119, 1997.

4. Askew, G.N. and Marsh, R.L., Optimal shortening velocity (V/Vmax) of skeletal muscle during cyclical contractions: length-force effects and velocity-dependent acitvation and deactivation, J. Exp. Biol., 201, 1527, 1998.

5. Askew, G.N. and Marsh, R.L., The mechanical power output of the pectoralis muscle of blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis): the in vivo length cycle and its implications for muscle performance, J. Exp. Biol., 204, 3587, 2001.

6. Lutz, G.J. and Rome, L.C., Built for jumping: the design of the frog muscular system, Science, 263, 370, 1994.

7. Askew, G.N. and Marsh, R.L., Muscle designed for maximum short-term power output: quail flight muscle, J. Exp. Biol, 205, 2153, 2002.

8. Biewener, A.A., Future directions for the analysis of musculoskeletal design and locomotor performance, J. Morphol., 252, 38, 2002.

9. Wakeling, J.M. and Johnston, I.A., Muscle power output limits fast-start performance in fish, J. Exp. Biol., 201, 1505, 1998.

10. Askew, G.N., Marsh, R.L., and Ellington, C.P., The mechanical power of the flight muscles of blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) during take-off, J. Exp. Biol., 201, 3601, 2001.

Kohlsdorf, T. et al., Locomotor performance of closely related Tropidurus species: relationships with physiological parameters and ecological divergence, J. Exp. Biol., 207, 1183, 2004.

Ellerby, D.J., Spierts, I.L.Y., and Altringham, J.D., Slow muscle power output of yellow- and silver-phase European eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): changes in muscle performance prior to migration, J. Exp. Biol., 204, 1369, 2001. Wilson, R. S., Franklin, C.E., and James, R.S., Allometric scaling relationships of jumping performance in the striped marsh frog Limnodynastes peronii, J. Exp. Biol.,

Gillis, G.B. and Biewener, A.A., Hindlimb extensor muscle function during jumping and swimming in the toad (Bufo marinus), J. Exp. Biol., 203, 3547, 2000. Biewener, A.A. and Corning, W.R., Dynamics of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) gastrocnemius function during swimming versus terrestrial locomotion, J. Exp. Biol.,

Hedrick, T.L., Tobalske, B.W., and Biewener, A.A., How cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) modulate pectoralis power output across flight speeds, J. Exp. Biol., 206, 1363, 2003.

Hedrick, T.L., Usherwood, J.R., and Biewener, A.A., Wing inertia and whole-body acceleration: an analysis of instantaneous aerodynamic force production in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) flying across a range of speeds, J. Exp. Biol., 207, 1689, 2004.

Aerts, P., Vertical jumping in Galago senegalensis: the quest for a hidden power amplifier, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 353, 1607, 1998.

Vanhooydonck, B., et al., Effects of substrate structure on speed and acceleration capacity in climbing geckos, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 85, 385, 2005. Irschick, D.J. et al., Effects of loading and size on maximum power output and gait characteristics in geckos, J. Exp. Biol., 206, 3923, 2003.

Irschick, D.J. and Losos, J.B., A comparative analysis of the ecological significance of maximal locomotor performance in Caribbean Anolis lizards, Evolution, 52, 219, 1998.

Rand, A.S., The ecological distribution of the anoline lizards around Kingston, Jamaica, Breviora, 272, 1, 1967.

Schoener, T.W., The Anolis lizards of Bimini: resource partitioning in a complex fauna, Ecology, 49, 704, 1968.

Williams, E.E., Ecomorphs, faunas, island size, and diverse end points in island radiations of Anolis, in Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism, Huey, R.B. et al., Eds., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1983, p. 326.

Losos, J.B., Ecomorphology, performance capability, and scaling of West Indian Anolis lizards: an evolutionary analysis, Ecol. Mon., 60, 1990. Toro, E. et al., A biomechanical analysis of intra- and interspecific scaling of jumping biomechanics and morphology in Caribbean Anolis lizards, J. Exp. Biol., 206, 2641,


Aerts, P. et al., Bipedalism in lizards: whole-body modelling reveals a possible sprandrel, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 358, 1525, 2003.

Toro, E., Herrel, A., and Irschick, D.J., The evolution of jumping performance in Caribbean Anolis lizards: solutions to biomechanical trade-offs, Am. Nat., 163, 844,


Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J., Biometry: The Principals and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd ed., W.H. Freeman, New York, 1995, p. 859. Felsenstein, J., Phylogenies and the comparative method, Am. Nat., 125, 1, 1985.

31. Felsenstein, J., Phylogenies and quantitative characters, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 19, 445, 1988.

32. Harvey, PH. and Pagel, M.D., The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991, p. 248.

33. Losos, J.B. and Miles, D.B., Adaptation, constraint, and the comparative method: phylogenetic issues and methods, in Ecological Morphology: Integrative Organismal Biology, Wainwright, PC. and Reilly, S.M., Eds., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994, p. 60.

34. Garland, T., Jr., Midford, P.E., and Ives, A.R., An introduction to phylogenetically based statistical methods, with a new method for confidence intervals on ancestral states, Am. Zool., 39, 374, 1999.

35. Garland, T., Jr., Harvey, PH., and Ives, A.R., Procedures for the analysis of comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts, Syst. Biol., 41, 18, 1992.

36. Harmon, L.J. et al., Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Iguanian lizards, Science, 301, 961, 2003.

37. Nicholson, K.E. et al., Mainland colonization by island lizards, J. Biogeogr, 32, 1, 2005.

38. Regalado, R., Approach distance and escape behavior of three species of Cuban Anolis (Squamata, Polychrotidae), Carib. J. Sci., 34, 211, 1998.

39. Bonine, K.E., Gleeson, T.T., and Garland, T. Jr., Comparative analysis of fiber-type composition in the iliofibularis muscle of phrynosomatid lizards (Squamata), J. Mor-phol., 250, 265, 2001.

40. Herrel, A., unpublished data, 2005.

41. Marsh, R.L. and John-Alder, H.B., Jumping performance of hylid frogs measured with high-speed cine film, J. Exp. Biol., 188, 131, 1994.

42. Peplowski, M.M. and Marsh, R.L., Work and power output in the hindlimb muscles of Cuban tree frogs Osteopilus septentrionalis during jumping, J. Exp. Biol., 200, 2861, 1997.

43. Roberts, T.J. and Scales, J.A., Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys, J. Exp. Biol., 205, 1485, 2002.

44. Curtin, N., Woledge, R., and Aerts, P., Muscle directly meets the vast power demands in agile lizards, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B., 272, 581, 2005.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment