S

Salvia glutinosa, 127, 128, 129-131 sclarea, 127, 128, 129-131 Salvia flowers, biomechanics of, 123-145 biomechanics and bee pollination, 124-125 case study, 125-126 discussion, 136-141

comparing insect forces to barriers in flowers, 140 forces measured in Salvia flowers,

138-140 insect forces, 136-137

observed flower visitors, 137-138 proboscis length, flower-tube length, and forces exerted by visiting bees, 140-141 materials and methods, 126-133

force measurements on Salvia flowers and staminal levers, 132-133 forces of flower-visiting bees, 127-128 materials, 126-127 results, 134-136

forces exerted by B. terrestris and

A. mellifera, 134 forces and flower visitors of Salvia, 134-136

schematic longitudinal section of, 126 staminal level mechanism in, 125 Saplings, bending processes in, 20 Sap velocity measurements, 95 Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), 238 Satyrium hallackii, 141

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 148, 150

Sceloporus occidentalis, 232

Seaweed(s)

along-blade vs. across-blade accelerations, 80 blade movability, 80 branchiness, 78 drag coefficients, 67, 72 intertidal, 62 Vogel numbers, 78 Secamone, 45 bosserii, 44, 49 buxifolia, 49 cristata, 49 geayii, 44, 49 ligustrifolia, 50 Secamonopsis madagascariensis, 50 Secondary growth, mechanics of, 6 Sedimentation, gravi-perception and, 20 Self-supporting plants, 36, 91 SEM, see Scanning electron microscopy Sexual selection, 303

hummingbird displays, 314 isolating barriers and, 313 Shade intolerant plant species, 22 Shrubs, unstable, 53 SigmaScan 5.0 software, 149 Size-agility tradeoffs, 307 Skeletal muscle contractile properties of isolated, 242 functional tradeoffs in, 244 interindividual variation in, 245 shortening velocity, 235 sound production and, 240 tasks of, 239

Slippery wax barriers, see Macaranga-ant mutualisms, slippery wax barriers and wax running in Slope stability, effective planting and, 23 Smilax aspera, 45, 49, 51, 55 Smooth flagella, 275 Snout-vent length (SVL), 260 Soil shear strength, 10 Solanum lycopersicum, 124 melongena, 124 Solid mechanics, 2

Songbirds, divergent feeding niches, 310 Southern bullkelp Durvillaea, role of blade buoyancy and reconfiguration in mechanical adaptation of, 61-84 discussion, 74-81

buoyancy and field studies, 80 drag coefficients, reconfiguration, and

Vogel number, 78-80 drag forces, 74-78 morphological survey, 81 drag and streamlining, 64-65 Durvillaea antarctica and D. willana, 62-64 intertidal zone, 62 material and methods, 65-69 buoyancy, 68

drag coefficients and reconfiguration,

67-68 drag forces, 66-67 field studies, 68 morphological survey, 69 shortening experiments, 67 statistical analysis, 69 tested seaweeds, 65-66 objectives, 65 results, 70-74 buoyancy, 73

drag coefficients and reconfiguration, 72 drag forces, 70 field studies, 73-74 morphological survey, 74 shortening experiments, 70-72 Vogel number, 72-73 Speciation by-product model of, 301 modes of, 303 Sprint performance, 233 Sprint speed hatchling survival and, 244 muscle activation rate and, 238 SR, see Sarcoplasmic reticulum Stamina, Bufo, 232 Standing tree, safety factor in, 7 Stem(s)

buckling, 9 creep and, 43 flexural stiffness, 55 gravitational curvature in, 19 hydraulic conductance of, 40 lean, variation in, 9 mechanical instability of, 7 morphology, staking and, 14 orientation, control of, 16 photosynthesizer, 91 -root base, stressed, 21 slenderness, 13 twiners, 39 Young's modulus, 43 Stipa gigantea, 113 Strain energy, storage of, 108 Stratum-orientated depletion style, 109 Stretched wood, 17 Stride frequency, 236, 237, 238, 244 Strychnos, 37, 45, 47, 48, 52 Suction feeding, 186, 187, 198 Summit Force, 110 SVL, see Snout-vent length Sward board, 114 Sympatric divergence, 302

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