All twining climbers show a marked decrease in Estr from young to older stages of development (Table 2.1; Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4). All but five twiners show relatively high values of Estr in young stages of development of 2000 to 6000 MNm-2. The highest value for young stages occurs in Doliocarpus sp. at about 6900 MNm-2. Except for the species of Lonicera and two species of Secamone (S. bosserii, S. geayii), values of older stages (Figure 2.4) are below 1200 MNm-2 and about half of these are less than 600 MNm-2. All stem twiners tested are dicotyledonous angiosperms (Table 2.1) with the exception of the gymnosperm genus Gnetum. Interestingly, the two African species of Gnetum show markedly lower values of Estr in the young searcher shoots compared with all the other angiosperm twiners tested (Table 2.1; Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4).
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