W

Water column ecosystems, implications of microbial motility on, 271-299 energetics of motion, 278-282

feeding mechanisms, 282-289

attaching to particles while feeding, 288-289

coexistence of filter feeders, 284-287 generating motion with cilia or flagella, 275-278 cilia, 277-278 hispid flagella, 276-277 smooth flagella, 275-276 microbial ecology in larger context, 273-274 orientation to stimuli, 290-293 Waterfowl, courting displays in, 308 Wax contamination, 155 -dissolving hypothesis, 159 structure, contamination and, 153 Wax barriers, 164, see also Macaranga-ant mutualisms, slippery wax barriers and wax running in effect of on host specificity, 165 evolution of, 167 non-wax runners and, 166 Wax crystals aspect ratio of, 148, 152, 158, 159 detachment of, 171 pad contamination by, 151 Wax runner(s)

climbing kinematics of, 179 comparative morphometry of non-wax runners and, 174 kinematics of climbing in, 177 lateral footfall distances, 178 Wax running biomechanics of, 170 capacity, attachment force and, 173 mechanisms of, 172 Welch's t-test, 72 West et al. model, 88, 91 Whole muscle function, tradeoffs in, 240 performance, 242 Wind conditions, natural gradients in, 15 evapotranspirative effects of, 16 loading thigmomorphogenesis and, 16 trees subjected to, 14 speed, morphology and, 16 Windstorms, conifer forests and, 23 Wood air-dried, modulus of elasticity of, 4 angiosperms and, 95 anisotropy of, 5 anomalous, 57

cell differentiation process, 18

composite structure of, 5 compression, 17

conifer, support vs. transport conflict in, 94 conifer vs. angiosperm, 96 dried, 3

furcation numbers for, 93 green, 3 juvenile, 5 maturation strain, 18 mechanical properties of, 3 moisture content, 3 Murray's law and, 92 normal, 19 peripheral, 6, 17 reaction, 17

shrinkage of cells in, 17 stretched, 17 variability, 5

Xanthopan, 187 Xenopus laevis, 242

muscle fiber bundles, 236 Xylem application of Murray's law to, 88 flow rate, 91

major mechanical role of, 97 sap, negative pressures of, 90 structure, changed, 85 Xylocopa violacea, 127, 128

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