Wendy M Griffiths contents

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Ruminant Species 102

5.3 Harvesting Apparatus 102

5.4 Bite Procurement 104

5.5 Plant Form and Fracture Mechanics at the Plant Level 104

5.6 Instrumentation for Measuring Plant Fracture Mechanics under

Tension 107

5.7 Application of Plant Fracture Mechanics to Foraging Strategies 109

5.8 Instrumentation for Measuring Bite Force at the Animal Level 111

5.8.1 Prediction of Bite Force from Assessment of Plant Fracture Properties 111

5.8.2 Biomechanical Force Instruments 114

5.9 Biting Effort 115

5.10 Conclusion 118

Acknowledgments 118

References 118

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