Blueberries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Forest Structure and Species

Because many hardwood trees are both sensitive to low winter temperatures and require a long and warm summer, the true boreal forest begins where the few remaining hardwoods become a minor part of the forest. Four coniferous genera dominate a major part of the taiga Picea (spruce), Abies (fir), Pinus (pine), and Larix (larch). The hardwoods, which largely occur in dwarf form, include Alnus (alders), Populus (poplars), Betula (birches), and Salix (willows). The hardwoods tend to be early successional species following disturbances such as fires or erosion deposition processes on riverbanks, which are eventually shaded out by slower-growing spruces and firs. Much of the main boreal forest is dominated by a few spruce species. These form a dense canopy in the central and southern taiga, with a ground cover of dwarf shrubs, such as cranberries and bilberries, and mosses and lichens. In northern Siberia, huge areas are covered almost solely by larch, and the canopy is much less dense. Pine...

The Cumberland Escarpment Landscape And Its Resources

And lowland landforms are illustrated schematically in Figure 3.4. Ridgetops support pine oak forests with an understory that includes Vac-cinium sp. (blueberries), Gaylussacia sp. (huckleberries), and Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel). Beneath the ridgetops lie the sandstone cliffs in which rock shelters form. Steep slopes below the cliff zone become less rugged, as they approach the valley bottoms, which may be narrow benches or broader floodplains, such as that of the Red River, with alluvial terraces. The upper slopes just above and below the cliffs are dominated by

Identifying And Interpreting Weasel Diets

The list of potential food items to be identified in a weasel gut is relatively short, since they have evolved as specialist predators of small vertebrates (mammals, birds, and lizards). In their native habitats they eat insects, worms, or vegetable matter (usually only berries) only when extremely hungry. Moreover, since it is fair to assume that weasels never eat hair or feathers except in the course of eating the animal to which they were attached, one can make a rough estimate of the total number of individual prey eaten.

Species concepts in taxa with little or no sex

As noted in Chapter 2, many species can reproduce without sex simply through the production of unfertilized eggs (parthenogenesis), budding, and a range of other mechanisms. How on earth does one define species in these so-called 'uniparentals' or 'asexuals' First, it is important to note that not all recognized asexual species are obligatorily asexual (Chapter 2). For example, in most well-known asexual plants (such as dandelions and blackberries) and animals (such as some lizards and aphids), the recognized species either have sexual forms at some times of year or in some places, or they have arisen as a consequence of crossing two different sexual species. Therefore, in these particular cases, the traditional BSC approach may continue to help define what a species is.

Grazing by wild pigs and bears

Though many grizzly bears still live in Alaska and north-west America, their range and numbers have been greatly reduced since 1900 when they occurred as far south as Mexico. Life for the polar bear has also become more difficult. Global warming is reducing the extent of the Arctic ice cap and the annual period of extensive sea ice is diminishing. Even the polar bear, which is the largest carnivore now existing and travels further than any other bear, spending much of its time hunting seals on the polar ice, makes long journeys over land in summer during which time it eats small rodents such as lemmings as well as berries and leaves from the tundra and the taiga. Its size is very different from that of the Malaysian sun bear, which is smaller than a wolf. Though it is the world's second largest carnivore, most individuals of the grizzly avoid direct human contact. Nevertheless, it causes at least a few deaths every year. The cardinal rule is never to run from a wild bear not only will...

Foraging in a patchy environment

Laden with berries is a patch for a fruit-eating bird a leaf covered with aphids is a patch for a predatory ladybird. Alternatively, a 'patch' may only exist as an arbitrarily defined area in an apparently uniform environment for a wading bird feeding on a sandy beach, different 10 m2 areas may be thought of as patches that contain different densities of worms. In all cases though, a patch must be defined with a particular consumer in mind. One leaf is an appropriate patch for a ladybird, but for a larger and more active insectivorous bird, 1 m2 of canopy or even a whole tree may represent a more appropriate patch.

Irruptive migrations boreal seedeaters

Among the specialist seed- and fruit-eaters, most individuals stay in the north in years when food is plentiful there, wintering within, or just south of, their breeding areas, but moving further south in years when food is scarce. Their so-called invasions or irruptions, in which they appear in large numbers well beyond their usual range, follow periodic widespread crop failures. Irruptive migrations therefore occur in response to annual, as well as to seasonal, reductions in food supplies. The effect of food shortage is often accentuated because the birds themselves tend to be numerous at such times, as a result of good breeding and survival in previous years when food was plentiful (Lack 1954, Keith 1963, Berndt & Henss 1967, Koenig & Knops 2001). The greater the imbalance between the birds and their food, the greater the proportion of individuals that leaves, presumably as a result of competition (for Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus, see Siivonen 1941, Cornwallis 1961,...

Impacts of Acorns and Oaks on Bear Populations

Carolina, were found to be small when fall production of acorns was great and large when production was small (Powell et al. 1997). Powell et al. (1997, pp. 96-105) tested hypotheses concerning the relationship between three important food groups of bears (squaw root, berries, and acorns) and home range size. Acorn production explained 76 of the variation in fall home range size of females and 49 for males. Neither of the other food groups affected fall home ranges. Powell et al. also found a close relationship between fall acorn production and annual home range size, highlighting the importance of fall production of this fruit to the annual movement patterns of bears.

Demographic Response of Bears

Using a temporal extent of 22 years and 103 summer home ranges, we found our observations matched our predictions. Females preferred 2-9-year-old clear-cuts, avoided 10-49-year-old clear-cuts, and used > 50-year-old clear-cuts randomly during summer (Reynolds and Mitchell, unpublished data). Clearly, using annual home ranges to evaluate the importance of 2-9-year-old clear-cuts represented a confounding of seasonal patterns relative lack of use during the portion of the year when berries were not produced obscured the seasonal importance of clear-cuts to black bears revealed in the demographic analyses. Whereas clear-cuts provide few if any resources important to bears throughout most of the year and most of their successional lives, the seasonal productivity in soft mast in the years immediately following clear-cutting appears to be important to successful reproduction of the bear population. The difference between our results and those of Mitchell and Powell (2003) suggests the...

The nature of crop depredation

All cultivated legumes (such as beans) are potential food for elephants. A large number of legume species that are specific to different regions can be listed. Elephants often target cultivated palms such as coconut (Cocos nucifera), usually grown in homestead gardens, and the commercially planted oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). In southern India, elephants are known even to feed on ripe berries of coffee (Coffea arabica). A variety of vegetables (potato, tomato, carrot, spinach, pumpkin) and fruits (mango, banana, orange, melon, jackfruit) are consumed. A list of all cultivated plants consumed by elephants would run

Rates of decomposition

Rate Decomposition Ammonia

Different types of litter will, of course, have their own k values which contribute to the overall forest k value. Vogt et al. (1983) record that the 99 disappearance time in a fir stand in Washington state was 2.2 years for species of Allectoria lichen and leaves of blueberries Vaccinium species, 33 years for Pacific silver fir Abies amabalis cone scales and 38 years for mountain hemlock Tsuga mertensiana cones. Similarly, different soil horizons have their cumulative k value. In the Vogt et al. (1983) study the mean residence time for

Water Uptake in Deserts Animals

Desert Rodents

Cells that can withstand osmotic imbalance. Animals living in more mesic environments (including humans) would destroy their red blood cell at such high water content in their blood. Much of the free available water has high salinity, and so it is not a surprise that many desert animals show high salt tolerance, for instance by employing salt-excreting glands. Other animals, mostly the ones that are restricted in their mobility (e.g., mammals, reptiles, and insects), rely on water obtained from their food. Carnivorous and insectivorous animals typically receive enough water from their prey. Herbivores do so as well, as long as the moisture content of the consumed plant material is relatively high (> 15 of fresh weight fresh shoots and leaves, fruits, and berries). The ultimate desert-adapted method however is the extraction of metabolic water. Especially seed-eating (granivorous) animals are able to metabolically oxidize fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Rodents and some groups of...

Energy Equations And A Weasels Choice Of Prey

The main problem about this approach is that specializing on small rodents in general, and on northern voles in particular, commits the weasels as a group to dependence on a very unreliable food resource. The population densities of rodents in the far north fluctuate across a huge range, so that, every few years, weasels can catch far more than they need, while in the intervening years they go hungry, or have to find other food. The least weasels and stoats of the northern forests and tundra have little else to turn to, except perhaps a few berries, or a bit of frozen carrion, when the voles and lemmings disappear (Nasimovich 1949). Larger mammals such as rabbits and hares are absent or too big to tackle pikas and ground squirrels hibernate, and birds migrate south, for more than half the year.

Wall cladding with plants

Planting has to be done during spring or autumn. The plants can be either bought or collected from the wild (e.g. honeysuckle, ivy, hops and blackberries). Most will need to be planted at intervals of 30-50 cm and about 15 cm from the wall. The roots must have space to grow out from the building. Certain climbing plants are sensitive to high earth temperatures and prefer a shady root zone, which can be achieved by planting grass or small plants over them.

Plant Phenolics as Antioxidants

Teas would not be much good without natural phenolics, and volumes have been written about the antioxidant properties of phenolics in teas, grapes (especially the skins), cranberries, and blueberries, and vegetables such as broccoli, onions, spinach, and kale. Dietary supplements of plant-derived phenolics are prevalent, and reported to function at least in part as antioxidants. In this capacity, they are presumed to react with, and deactivate, free radicals (a molecule containing an unpaired electron). Free radicals can cause cellular damage by oxidizing lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. Thus, the neutralization of free radicals by natural phenolics that have antioxidant properties is presumed to be the molecular basis for at least some of their health benefits.

Plant Phenolics as Pigments and Flavors

Condensed tannins account for the astringent tastes of many fruits and wines. Many plants have fruits, leaves, or roots that are rich in flavorful phenolics. Consider, for example, the tastes of grapes, teas, cranberries, grapefruit, coffee, cinnamon, ginger, and vanilla.

Patch Choice

In the diet breadth model, we envision a resource that is harvested as a unit with a fixed value (e.g., a steenbok). By contrast, a patch is a resource or set of resources which is harvested at a diminishing rate, either because it is depleted in such a way that makes continued harvesting more difficult the densest and ripest berries are picked first, or because the continuing presence of the forager disperses or increases the wariness of remaining resource opportunities as in the second or third shot at

Reducing expenditure

Switch from insects to berries, for example, may lead to reduction in the energy spent on foraging movements. Birds may also lower their metabolic rates and body temperatures when sleeping at night, as a means of conserving energy, and migrant hummingbirds usually become torpid at night, even when very fat for migration (Carpenter & Hixon 1988). Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis show a progressive reduction in mean daily abdominal temperature (down to 4.4 C below usual), which begins just before the birds embark on their migration and continues, on average, for about three weeks (Butler et al. 2003).

History and Scope

Outdoor releases of several species of predators and parasitoids developed independently of the indoor applications described above and mainly focused on egg parasitoids in the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae). These parasitoids are released to suppress pest weevils and caterpillars in cotton, corn and sugarcane, especially in China, Russia, and tropical sugar-producing countries. Predators of mealybugs for release on citrus crops in parts of California have been reared by a growers' cooperative since 1926. Several species of predatory phytoseiid mites are released for control of pest spider mites in strawberries, outdoor foliage plant production, and other high value crops.

Outdoor crops

The scientific use of augmentative natural enemy releases in outdoor crops is best established in Northern Europe for control of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner ) in corn. Use is greatest in Germany and France, with about 11 000 acres being protected annually in Germany with Trichogramma releases. This is, however, only a small fraction of the total corn acreage in Europe, and use of biological control is concentrated principally where pesticide use is not allowed because of concern for health of people living near corn fields and is supported by a government subsidy. Natural enemy releases for mite control has been successful in strawberries in California, Florida, and the northeastern United States, and in outdoor shade houses used for production of foliage plants in Florida. In Mexico,

Territories

Members of many species in the Carnivora exhibit intrasexual territoriality and maintain territories only with regard to members of their own sex (Powell 1979, 1994 Rogers 1977, 1987). These species exhibit large sexual dimorphism in body size and males of these species are polygynous (and females undoubtedly selectively polyandrous). Females raise young without help from males and the large body sizes of males may be considered a cost of reproduction (Seaman 1993). For species that affect food supplies mostly through resource depression (i.e., have rapidly renewing food resources such as ripening berries and nuts or prey on animals that become wary when they perceive a predator and later relax), intrasexual territoriality appears to have a minor cost compared to intersexual territoriality because the limiting resource renews. This cost may be imposed on females by males (Powell 1993a, 1994).

Fable for Tomorrow

Along the roads, laurel, viburnum and alder, great ferns and wildflowers delighted the traveler's eye through much of the year. Even in winter the roadsides were places of beauty, where countless birds came to feed on the berries and on the seed heads of the dried weeds rising above the snow. The countryside was, in fact, famous for the abundance and variety of its bird life, and when the flood of migrants was pouring through in spring and fall people traveled from great distances

Blister Rust

The infamous white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola and having members of the Ribes genus as alternate hosts, is not as serious in the Southern Appalachians as in woodlands of the North. In the South, diseased trees are seldom found below 3500 feet, and few stands of white pine occur above that elevation. On the other hand, Ribes species, the gooseberries and currants, grow mostly at higher elevations, particularly in narrow belts along the main mountain ranges. In the geographic range of Ribes, infection of white pine is more common on moist sites and in dense, unthinned stands. Under these conditions, micro-climate is optimum for spore infection. Open, park-like stands have higher air temperatures, more air circulation, and lower relative humidity, the combination of which is not conducive to sporulation. Ribes seeds, remaining viable in the soil for many years until logging or fire allow germination, produce a brushy vegetative cover unless shaded by hardwood trees.

Importation

Fruit and vegetable crops in the developing world may be grown and harvested under conditions quite different from those for produce grown in the United States. Consumption of imported contaminated foods has caused illness with common pathogens such as salmonella, or exotic pathogens such as Cyclospora (Herwaldt et al., 1997) or Vibrio cholerae (Taylor et al., 1993). Even insubstantial exposures can result in illness when the infectious dose of a pathogen is low and there is little pre-existing immunity in the population. In the outbreaks of cyclo-sporiasis associated with imported raspberries, the berries often were only used as a garnish yet attack rates were often greater than 80 percent (Herwaldt et al., 1997). Currently there are no regulatory standards for microbiological criteria for fresh produce in the United States. Many of these, such as salad items and fruits, are consumed raw, offering immediate opportunity for ingestion of pathogenic organisms distinctly...

Reindeer and Caribou

At the time of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in the Soviet Union, some 7,000 Saami people in Finland and Scandinavia still made their living by herding a half-million reindeer. This traditional ecology and mode of economic life was already threatened when the windborne release of radioactive elements over northern Europe created a catastrophic situation in the hardest hit areas of central Sweden and Norway, contaminating berries, fish, animals, and milk. Lichens, the rootless organisms that are the main fodder of grazing reindeer, are entirely fed by airborne nutrients and therefore especially absorbent of radiation. Reindeer herds were relocated to safer

Mutual antagonism

A protective covering of compost, paper, bark chippings, cocoa shells, etc. spread over the ground to reduce evaporation, control weeds, enrich the soil, and protect against temperature fluctuations. Straw is used to keep soft fruits such as strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) clean and dry.

Subsistence

State legislature, in the 1978 Subsistence Act, defined subsistence as customary and traditional uses of fish and game for food, clothing, and other specific needs. Whether the term is used in the broad or narrow sense, the fruits of subsistence labor go to meet the needs of the family or community, rather than entering a local trade or larger market economy. Continued access to territory for the purpose of acquiring foods, medicines, raw materials, and other goods is necessary in order for a community to maintain a subsistence way of life. Hunter-gatherer societies past and present have lived off the land by tracking wild herds, picking berries, and catching fish. Shifting cultivation, also known as swidden or slash-and-burn agriculture, is a principal means of subsistence in many parts of the world clearing and burning fields, planting genetically diversified crops in rotation, and allowing fields to lie fallow in rotation, in order for the soil to replenish its fertility. The...

Xeric Habitats

Many of the ground-dwelling, wingless cockroaches of Australia are important in leaf litter breakdown. This is particularly true in stands of Eucalyptus, where litter production is high relative to other forest types, leaves decompose slowly, and more typical decomposers such as earthworms, isopods, and millipedes are uncommon (Matthews, 1976). The beautiful Striped Desert Cockroach Desmozosteria cincta, for example, lives among twigs and branches at the base of eucalypts (Rentz, 1996). In hummock grasslands and spinifex, genera such as Anamesia feed on the dead vegetation trapped between the densely packed stems (Park, 1990). The litter-feeding, soil-burrowing Geoscapheini are associated with a variety of Australian vegetation types ranging from dry scle-rophyll to rainforest, and have perhaps the most potential ecological impact. First, they drag quantities of leaves, twigs, grass, and berries down into their burrows, thus moving surface litter to lower soil horizons. Second, they...

Angiosperms

Nectar-producing flowers support pollinating insects, birds, and small mammals such as rodents, bats, and marsupials. Fruits and seeds are an important food source for many birds, mammals, and some fish. Angiosperms are as important a food source to humans as they are to other animals, either through the consumption of grazing herbivores or through the direct consumption of fruits, seeds, and vegetables. The most important angiosperm families are the Poaceae (cereals, forage grasses, and bamboo), the Solanaceae (potato, eggplant, tomato, and chili and sweet peppers), Brassicaceae (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, turnip, and other vegetables), Rosaceae (apples, cherries pears, plums, and many berries), Cucurbitaceae (melons, squashes, gourds, and the like), and Fabaceae (legumes and beans). Fruits are a ripened carpel or, in the case of fused carpels, a ripened gynoecium. There are many types of fruits, and fruit classification is highly...