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Anatomical and physiological adaptations

In any discussion of the elephant's feeding strategy, the role of the trunk cannot be ignored. From selectively picking up tiny flowers or fallen fruits from the ground to reaching up 5 m for a stout branch, this unique organ enables the elephant to feed on a wide variety of plants and plant parts. Whatever other functions may be attributed to the trunk, its mere possession and versatility could have been a strong determinant of dietary diversity. In other words, if you have it, you might as...

Recording Devices Hearing And Behaviour

Pierce (1948) published one of the first comprehensive attempts, known to me, to record and analyse insect songs in a systematic manner. None of the equipment which we now take for granted, with the exception of the microphones, was then available to him. He manufactured a number of ingenious devices for recording and analysing calls, but his results are now of little more than historical interest. All of the insects that Pierce described produced loud, airborne, acoustic signals and were...

Tusks parasites handicaps and sexual selection

The ecological and evolutionary role of tusks in elephants is debatable. Tusks may play a role in obtaining nutrition, such as from debarking of trees. They may be used by males in male-male combat and perhaps even by females (of African elephants) in establishing intrasexual dominance. More important, tusks in male elephants may act as a secondary sexual character that influences female choice of mates. Among Asian elephants, only males may possess tusks thus, there is a distinct possibility...

Gene flow and local adaptation

Genetic drift is not the only force that causes populations to diverge from one another. Environments are not homogeneous, and therefore different genotypes will be selected for in different parts of a species' range this is known as local adaptation. A commonly cited example of local adaptation is heavy metal tolerance in plants and fungi. Suilloid ectomycorrhizal fungi (Suillus luteus and S. bovinus), for example, were found to be highly zinc-tolerant when collected within 5 km of a zinc...

Evolution of life history traits in elephants

The term life history broadly refers to a host of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of a species, although it is often restricted to demographic traits, such as age-specific birth and death rates, or developmental traits, such as growth rates and body size. While aspects of reproductive behavior, social organization, or feeding ecology in elephants have been recognized as the outcome of natural selection, there has been little attempt to discuss demographic traits in...

Macroarthropods

Larger insects, spiders, myriapods, and others are considered together under the appellation macroarthropods. Typical body lengths range from about 10 mm to as much as 15 cm for centipedes (Shelley, 2002). The group includes a mixture of various arthropod classes, orders, and families. Like the microarthropods, the macroarthropods are defined more by the methods used to sample them rather than by measurements of body size. Large soil cores (10-cm diameter or greater) may be appropriate for...

Immediate Causes of Death

Mortality (from Latin mors, death) is one of the major ecological processes that affect the population dynamics of living organisms and is an important component of population systems. Although most multicellular organisms are genetically programmed to die after the end of reproduction period, death often occurs earlier which may negatively affect population numbers in future generations. Major immediate causes of death include inimical agents, competition, shortage of energy or other...

Predators Of Weasels

Tame weasels of any species, well settled in captivity, can live up to 10 years. Why do most wild weasels achieve only a tenth or less of their potential life span The most obvious explanation, considering that weasels are obligate predators dependent on wildly variable food supplies, is shortage of food, but there are others. Stoats and longtails are often killed on the road, especially males in spring (Buchanan 1987 Sleeman 1988a). The active lifestyle of weasels and their insatiable...

Alteration of Community Composition and Ecosystem Dynamics through the Stoichiometry of Recycling

When we place these specific stoichiometric recycling effects into the context of complete, complex ecosystems, a variety of interesting dynamics result. For example, as we just saw, terrestrial plant species that produce low-nutrient litter will have a depressive effect on mineralization rates in their vicinity. A low mineralization rate will reduce primary productivity, lower plant biomass, and raise light nutrient ratios. These conditions in turn will favor particular plant species that are...

Artiodactyls

Order Artiodactyla is composed of hoofed mammals that have two, or sometimes four, functional toes on each foot. The diversity and abundance of this group is of major economic importance to humans. Through hunting and domestication, most artiodactyl families have been utilized by humans either for transportation or as important sources of meat, A pig, one of the domesticated artiodactyls with econ-mic importance to humans. (Henry Horenstein Corbis) A pig, one of the domesticated artiodactyls...

Carnivora

Order Carnivora is composed of predaceous mammals with large canine teeth and a car-nassial mechanism (specialized shearing blades formed by the occlusion of the last upper premolar and first lower molar). Interactions between the array of carnivore species and the single living human species are mixed. Many carnivores are trapped or hunted for their coats and flesh. Pinnipeds (walruses and seals) have been an important source of fur, food, oil, and ivory. For the last 11,000 years, populations...

Cetacea Whales Dolphins Porpoises

Cetaceans are the only completely aquatic mammals and are among the most spectacular of all vertebrates. Seafarers have appreciated the beauty and grace of cetaceans for centuries. Whale hunting (whaling) began as early as 1000 C.E. Although some cultures consumed whale meat and utilized the meat and by-products as dog and cattle feed, whales historically have been hunted for their baleen (whale bone) and oil derived from their blubber. Small cetaceans, particularly dolphins, have also been...

Great Apes

The closest living relatives to humans, great apes belong to the Family Pongidae and include four species in three genera common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Panpaniscus), orang-utans (Pongopygmaeus), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Like all apes, the great apes lack tails and have broad, shortened trunks (in contrast to the flattened trunks seen in monkeys). Their forelimbs are as long as or longer than their hind limbs and are equipped with mobile wrist and shoulder joints that...

Lagomorpha

Order Lagomorpha is represented by two living families Ochotonidae (pikas), and Lep-oridae (rabbits and hares). The thirteen genera and eighty-two living species of lagomorphs are terrestrial herbivores. Their natural distributions covered most major land areas except Antarctica, southern South America, Madagascar, the Australian-New Guinea region, New Zealand, and many islands. One species now occurs worldwide through human introduction. Certain species are exploited by humans for food,...

Primates

Primates are an order of mammals that includes humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (see Figure 1). Prosimians are sometimes referred to as lower primates, where the rest of the order is referred to as higher primates. In general, primates have a large range of variability in body size. The smallest primate is the pygmy mouse lemur from Madagascar. It is only 20 cm (8 in) from its nose to its tail and weighs only 30 gm (1 oz). This species is dwarfed by the largest primate the lowland gorilla...

Rodents

Rodents are small to medium-size mammals (5 grams to 65 kilograms), with one pair of evergrowing, rootless upper and lower incisors. Most are herbivorous, though some are partly or exclusively insectivorous, or partly carnivorous. There are more than 2,100 living species (sorted into more than 460 genera in 27 families) in the Order Rodentia, and they constitute nearly half of the approximately 5,000 species of living mammals. Rodents are indigenous to every land area except Antarctica, New...

Xenarthrans Edentates

Living and extinct xenarthrans are endemic to the New World and distinguished from all other living and extinct mammals by their extra joint articulations (xenarthrous articulation) bracing the lumbar vertebrae (xenarthra means strange joints). In most mammals, the vertebrae articulate with each other by two dorsal bony processes (zygapophyses), but xenarthran vertebrae also have lateral vertebral articular processes with dorsal and ventral arms. Some xenarthrans, primarily anteaters and...

Anaerobic pathways and environmental hypoxia

Insects generally do not have well developed anaerobic metabolic capabilities. Nonetheless, the majority of species show a remarkable ability to recover from either hypoxia or anoxia, and at least some taxa are capable of surviving, being active, and reproducing under conditions of profound hypoxia. While high altitude insects (such as those found in the high Himalayas) experience prolonged hypoxia and hypobaria, hypoxia or anoxia is also characteristic of several other environments. These...

Bees body size and foraging

Even the smallest bees warm up endothermically before flight, although at relatively low rates (Stone and Willmer 1989b). Andrenid bees weighing only 29 mg, Andrena bicolor, bask inside flowers and fly at Tth of 22-31oC, with an average Tth during free flight of 27oC (Herrera 1995a). These values are about 10oC lower than those reported for many species of Apidae and Anthophoridae, so A. bicolor appears to be ectothermic but many small solitary bees use their endothermic warm-up abilities...

Body size

A second recurrent theme in this book has been the significance of body size-related variation in physiological traits. Indeed, it is widely appreciated that body size and many physiological variables are highly correlated, and that interactions between the latter and life history variables produce the range in body sizes that has been documented for various assemblages (Peters 1983 Schmidt-Nielsen 1984 Kozlowski and Gawelczyk 2002). That individual body size varies through space, therefore,...

Conclusion

It would seem, then, that the real life of animals (as opposed to the constricted and difficult life that they attempt to live in zoological textbooks) is the end-result of a number of fundamentally different processes. In Chapters 2-6, the ways in which insects respond to different components of the external environment have been dealt with in relative isolation. Nonetheless, each of the chapters has revealed similarities and connections between these responses. In this final chapter, these...

Dormancy size and phylogeny

During the active portion of an insect's life cycle desiccation stress is probably frequent, but shortlived. In addition, the active stages (larvae and adults) have regular access both to free water and to water in their food. In contrast, during dormancy (diapause, quiescence, aestivation), dehydration is likely to be prolonged and access to water and energy resources extremely limited (Lighton and Duncan 1995 Danks 2000). At this time, there is likely to be strong selection both for low...

Endothermy ecological and evolutionary aspects

Facultative endothermy is an option available only to adult insects with functional flight muscles. Other than preflight warm-up and flight, the flight muscles are used for endothermy during terrestrial activity (Bartholomew and Casey 1977), for stridulation in katydids (Stevens and Josephson 1977), and also for brood incubation and regulation of nest temperature in social insects (for review see Heinrich 1993). Colony homeostasis provides not only an incubator for the brood, but also a thermal...

Food webs and feeding and functional groups

It is relatively easy to determine the mode of feeding of some benthic organisms (see for example the excellent review of Fauchald and Jumars 1979, although this is now slightly dated and requires revision). Polychaetes have characteristic feeding structures, so one can determine from their morphology whether they are filter feeders, deposit feeders, or predators. Bivalves show similar morphological characteristics and it is easy to determine whether they are deposit or filter feeders. Some...

Metabolic rate variation size

Discontinuous gas exchange in ticks is thought to be one of the ways in which these animals maintain the very low metabolic rates required by their sit-and-wait strategy, which includes long periods of fasting (Lighton and Fielden 1995). Scorpions are also thought to have uncharacteristically low metabolic rates, and this has prompted considerable speculation regarding the benefits of low metabolic rates in both groups (Lighton et al. 2001). In turn, this speculation has raised the question of...

Microhabitats and activity

The significance of microclimate ( climate of the microhabitat, see Section 4.4.1) in the thermal and water balance of insects was reviewed by Willmer (1982). The critical parameters are temperature and the moisture content of the air, continuously modified by solar radiation and air movement. Steep gradients are common near the ground (both above and below the surface), and climate can be greatly modified in boundary layers, especially when vegetation is present to transpire, provide shade and...

Preflight warmup

Preflight thermogenesis involves simultaneous contractions of opposing flight muscles, so that all the energy is degraded to heat, and the metabolic power output during warm-up is as high as during flight (Bartholomew et al. 1981 Casey and Hegel-Little 1987). Stone and Willmer (1989b) investigated the importance of body size and phylogeny in the warm-up rates of a wide range of female bees from six families. They demonstrated a positive correlation between warm-up rates and body mass after...

Water balance physiology

Most of the recent work has been concerned with the exploration of particular mechanisms, and there is now both a need and an opportunity to take a wider view and attempt to synthesise such knowledge into an understanding of water balance in whole animals in natural situations. Water availability and temperature are the two most important abiotic variables influencing the distribution and abundance of insects, although they are continuously modified by two other major climatic factors, solar...

Wood Feeders

Wood-feeding cockroach species remove large quantities of wood from the surface but their contribution to soil fertility has yet to be explored. Both Panesthiinae and Cryptocercidae progressively degrade the logs they inhabit. They not only ingest wood, but also shred it without consumption when excavating tunnels. The abundant feces line galleries, pack side chambers, and are Fig. 10.1 Decomposition of logs by Cryptocercus punctulatus, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Virginia. (A) Frass pile...

Nematode Extraction Techniques

Soil Fecal Pellets Fauna

Nematodes may be extracted by a variety of techniques, either active or passive in nature. The principal advantage of the oldest, active method, namely the Baermann funnel method, is that it is simple, requiring no sophisticated equipment or electricity. It is based on the animal's movement and gravity. Samples are placed on coarse tissue paper, on a coarse mesh screen, and then placed in the cone of a funnel and immersed in water. After crawling through the moist soil and filter paper, the...

Causes of death and mortality rates

Survivirship Curve Southern Sea Otter

The causes of death and the mortality rates are notoriously difficult to estimate for most wild mammalian species, including the elephant. Carcasses in the field are usually putrefied, making it difficult to identify the cause of death, especially if a pathogen is involved. Juveniles in the population are usually under-represented in a collection of remains discovered thus, estimation of age-specific mortality rates for the younger age classes, vital for understanding population dynamics,...

The interaction of questions in evolutionary ecology

Throughout the book several issues have been raised in more than one chapter, implying that understanding one topic in evolutionary ecology can enhance understanding of another. This occurs for two reasons. First, the topics are biologically interdependent. Second, the techniques we can use to aid understanding are often general. These connections have also led many notable evolutionary ecologists to move from one subject to the next. Let us now recap the connections illustrated by the book...

The evolution of frequency distributions in species body sizes

Most species contributing to a large taxonomic rank are small. This appears to be the overwhelming message from an examination of species body size distributions (Figure 15.1). The distributions tend to be right skewed, even on a logarithmic scale, and yet, the mode is seldom in the smallest size class but slightly larger. These patterns probably hold regardless of potential biases in the data (Blackburn and Gaston 1994). The skewness tends to be less common at smaller spatial scales and when...

The dynamics of antagonism

The fourth and final characteristic is the dynamics of antagonism. Many cases of co-evolution involve escalating degrees of antagonism. Included here are escape-and-radiation co-evolution, arms races, and co-evolutionary alternation. Arms races are interesting because they can occur, as in pollination interactions, within a mutualism,which serves to underline how fragile such mutualisms are to exploitation. Other modes highlight decreasing degrees of antagonism mutual dependence and...

Big ecology

Nature uses only the longest threads to weave her patterns, so that each small piece of her fabric reveals the organization of the entire tapestry. Macroecology is the field that describes and attempts to explain statistical patterns of abundance, distribution, and diversity (Brown 1995 Gaston and Blackburn 2000). Macroecologists have identified a number of distinctive patterns in these variables that seem to be telling us something important about the rules governing ecology and evolution. In...

The number of interacting species

The first characteristic is the number of interacting species at any point in time. In some interactions this is static. For example, mutual dependence interactions (Figure 11.1) characterize mutualisms that become increasingly intimate and obligate over time. This has occurred most notably with the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes, all three of which were Table 11.2 The characteristics that differentiate between the modes of co-evolution. Table 11.2 The characteristics that...

The evolution of animal flight understanding a major transition in ecology

There is now little doubt among most biologists that birds derive from a group of theropod dinosaurs. The theropods were a bipedal carnivorous group that share many anatomical features with birds. A series of recent fossils, most notably from Liaoning province of China and described by Xu Xing and colleagues, include therapods with epidermal feather-like structures that we might collectively refer to as 'fuzz'. They were pre-adapted for flight through a fast cursorial predatory lifestyle. This...

Sexual Dimorphism

Male weasels of all species are substantially larger than females (see Table 4.1 Figure 14.1). The reason for this difference was at first considered to have something to do with food (Brown & Lasiewski 1972). Because the two sexes are so different in size, they tend to eat different things so, the argument ran, the difference must have arisen so that each could avoid trespassing on the other's food supplies. In times of food shortage, this trick might be valuable to both. Indeed, the...

Stress and the Expression of Phenotypic Variation

Although selection acts at the phenotypic level, adaptive responses to stressors ultimately will be dictated by the presence of genetic variation in traits in the direction which selection acts. Typically, narrow sense heritability for a single trait h2 VA VP , which is the slope of the relationship between the additive genetic variance VA and total phenotypic variance VP , is used to predict a population's response to selection R h S see Units of Selection . An alternative predictor is...

Endothermy Metabolic Rate and Body Size

The metabolic rate necessary to achieve endothermy is influenced by size because heat loss to the environment is roughly proportional to an animal's surface area. Surface area depends on body mass i.e., for similarly shaped organisms, surface area increases with body mass raised to the power 2 3 . Because surface area increases more slowly than body mass, larger animals generally can achieve endothermy with lower metabolic intensities i.e., metabolic rates per unit mass Table 1 . Indeed, even...

Foods Of Stoats In North America And Eurasia

Far more has been published about the eating habits of stoats than of either of the other species. Ermine fur has long been an important but unreliable item of trade in the far north, and in North America, both the stoat and the long-tailed weasel have been trapped, skinned, and traded for many years. Scientific interest in them goes back at least to the 1920s Seton 1926 . Soviet studies on the biology of stoats date back just as far Heptner et al. 1967 . The Russian literature on stoats, and...

Size and Temperature

Geographical variation in the body sizes of animals is common, and many explanations have been offered since the nineteenth century. At that time, many zoologists still believed that it should be possible to explain much of the riotous variety of life in terms of simple, formal Rules, comparable with those of physics and chemistry and based on the same properties of energy and matter that govern inanimate things. For example, warm-blooded animals living in cold climates have to expend a huge...

Paleoecological Evidence

The geological record for Q-time and deep-time paleoe-cology can be rich in biological and environmental information. Biological information comes from fossils preserved in sediments. The most common types of fossils in Quaternary paleoecology have much original material preserved, such as 'hard parts' of shells, insect exoskele-tons, diatom frustules, leaf cuticles, bones, pollen, seeds, and wood. Other types of fossils include impressions and films, petrifications and replacements, molds and...

Adaptation In Body Size Of Stoats Transported To New Zealand

The stoats and common weasels that were introduced to New Zealand over the 20 or so years after 1884 were relatively large, because they probably all came from Britain Chapter 13 . They found an environment quite different from the one they left, with a generally milder climate ranging from warmer than Britain in the north, where there are subtropical rainforests, to colder than Britain in the high mountains, where there are large, permanent glaciers . They also found a prey fauna completely...

Metabolism and gas exchange

The concept that insect respiration depends only on diffusion supplemented in larger species by ventilation is in need of an overhaul the situation is much more complex. Insects, like all living organisms, are far-from-equilibrium, dissipative structures. That is, they actively take up energy and nutrients and in doing so alter both themselves and their surrounding environment. Initially, the changes in both directions might appear insignificant, but on a longer time scale their impact can be...

Community Level Patterns

Body size-abundance distributions describe the variation of some measurements of individual abundance with individual body mass. The measurements of abundance used are number and biomass of individuals of each population within a guild or a community, number or biomass of individuals in successful populations within a species range, at the regional, continental, and global scale, number or biomass of individuals within a community and number or biomass of individuals in base 2 logarithmic...

Evolution Of Alloheimy

Whatever the pattern of geographical segregation among wintering migrants, if such differences are genetically influenced, through migratory behaviour, it is not hard to envisage how they might have come about Figure 23.9 . Imagine that populations which breed in separate areas come together on common wintering grounds. If they were limited by food in the wintering area, and individuals of one population were better adapted to that area, they would in time be expected to eliminate individuals...

Expenditure per Progeny

Progeny produced late in a growing season often have lower probabilities of reaching adulthood than those produced earlier - hence, they contribute less to enhancing parental fitness. Likewise, larger offspring may usually cost more to produce, but they are also 'worth more'. How much should a parent devote to any single progeny For a fixed amount of reproductive effort, average fitness of individual progeny varies inversely with the total number produced. One...

Fast and Slow Life Histories Observed patterns

According to the concept of fast and slow life histories, species with fast slow life histories have certain life-history characteristics that are similar to those of r-strategists K-strategists in the r K concept Table 2 . In contrast to the r K concept, however, fast and slow life histories are primarily observed patterns and not necessarily connected to an explanation. Table 2 Life histories of species on the fast-slow continuum with body size included Table 2 Life histories of species on...

Variants on the Basic Model

Postzygotic Isolation

There are two main types of allopatric speciation. First, in vicariant speciation sometimes called dichopatric or dumbbell speciation , a species is split into two large populations by the appearance of a barrier to dispersal Figure 2 , such as mountain building, changes in ocean circulation, continental rifting, glaciation, and climate-driven habitat fragmentation. Vicariant specia-tion corresponds to the geographic mode of speciation highlighted by Mayr in Systematics, and since then there...

From genotype to phenotype

All the patterns discussed thus far have pertained to the long-term evolution of the immune system. It is important to remember, however, that all adaptive evolution is based on phenotypic polymorphism that segregates in populations at some point in time. Indeed, extant natural populations harbour considerable genetic variation for immunocompe-tence. This segregating phenotypic variation is the substrate for short-term evolution. Understanding its genetic basis and the forces governing its...

Mechanism of Biomagnification

A number of mechanisms have been proposed to describe the biomagnification process as it applies to persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds. The first model published to describe biomagnification of the insecticide DDT described the lipid co-assimilation mechanism. In this model, both lipids and contaminants are efficiently assimilated from food however, a smaller fraction of lipids are retained as a result of metabolism of these nutrients to satisfy energetic requirements. Recalcitrant...

Patterns of flea diversity

The search for patterns of biodiversity across locations and through time and the explanation of these patterns is one of the most popular themes in ecology. Understanding of biodiversity patterns in application to parasites is especially important because parasites play important roles in the regulation of populations and communities of their hosts e.g. Combes, 2001 Poulin, 2007a and because this understanding is crucial for successful control of diseases that hit humans as well as wild and...

Optimal Behavior and Consumer Resource Models

Coexisting species often differ in body size, but such differences do not always lead to coexistence based on food size selection. Coexisting species ofgraniv-orous desert rodents often differ in body size e.g., Brown 1975 , yet may overlap almost completely in the sizes of the seeds that they consume e.g., Lemen 1978 . In contrast, coexisting species of Darwin's finches may show distinct differences in both their beak sizes and the seed sizes in their diets Grant 1986 see section 12.8 ....

The habitat template and species traits

Habitat template theory places particular emphasis on the matching of habitat requirements of individual species to the abiotic and biotic conditions of a locale Southwood 1988, Town-send and Hildrew 1994 . Increasingly, such efforts examine the traits of species with the expectation that attributes such as size, body shape, life span, and mode of dispersal will help us understand why certain species succeed where others do not, and also may provide clues regarding the environmental factors...

Ecology of flea locomotion

The locomotory patterns of fleas reflect their way of life as parasites of fur- or feather-covered hosts. Fleas are able to move through dense host pelage and withstand the host's anti-parasitic grooming. They also are able to jump, to move through the substrate of a host's burrow or nest and to move on vertical surfaces e.g. fleas parasitic on bats . Here, I briefly review the morphological and physiological aspects of flea locomotory features that facilitate the successful exploitation of...

Earthworms phylum Annelida Clitellata Oligochaeta

There are gt 7000 species known from aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and a small number of species are known to inhabit marine sediments. Most species belong to about 20 families adapted for a terrestrial interstitial habitat. Their distribution is limited by absence of soil organic matter and litter on which they feed. They are absent or rare in arid or cold regions, for climatic as well as nutritional reasons. Their present geographical distribution seems to carry the mark of previous...

Raptors and other soaring birds

Birds East Africa

If they had continued for a fortnight in the same strength as on that day, we could surely have said that they were in greater number than all the men living on the earth. . . . they are seen to pass in this way as thick as ants, and so to continue for many days. Belon 1555 , writing of the migration of Black Kites Milvus migrans on the Black Sea coast. In some large bird species, the spread wings span a large area relative to body weight, and provide good lift in rising air currents. This is...

Types of Adaptations Relevant to Population Dynamics

Adaptations of feeding, antipredator, and reproductive morphology can directly affect population demography, and if they vary in space or time, can consequently drive variation in population demography. Alternative feeding morphologies in response to increased competition may increase population size but with reduced growth. Considerable variation in morphology associated with resource use is a classic example of local adaptation to the environment, and can therefore lead to variable population...

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