Contents

Preface vii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Methodology 19

PART ONE: THE MIGRATORY PROCESS 43

Chapter 3 Migratory flight 45

Chapter 4 Weather effects and other aspects 67

Chapter 5 Fuelling the flights 95

Chapter 6 Incredible journeys 139

Chapter 7 Raptors and other soaring birds 163

Chapter 8 Speed and duration of journeys 193

Chapter 9 Finding the way 231

Chapter 10 Vagrancy 267

PART TWO: THE TIMING AND CONTROL OF

MIGRATION 301

Chapter 11 Annual cycles 303

Chapter 12 Control mechanisms 333

PART THREE: LARGE-SCALE MOVEMENT PATTERNS 367

Chapter 13 Geographical patterns 369

Chapter 14 Seasonal occupation of breeding areas 399

Chapter 15 Sex and age differences in migration 425

Chapter 16 Variations on a migratory theme 457

Chapter 17 Site-fidelity and dispersal 479

Chapter 18 Irruptive migrations: boreal seed-eaters 523 Chapter 19 Irruptive migrations: owls, raptors and waterfowl 563

PART FOUR: EVOLUTION OF MOVEMENT PATTERNS 587

Chapter 20 Evolutionary aspects 589

Chapter 21 Recent changes in bird migrations 617

Chapter 22 Biogeographical legacies 639

Chapter 23 Distribution patterns 675

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