Habitats

For the most part the migrants occupy in Africa habitats that are structurally similar to those they use in their breeding areas, and obtain similar foods in similar ways (Chapter 22). Most of the migrant passerines and raptors live in savannah or woodland. The highest densities and proportions of migrant passerines are found in seasonal savannahs (Lack 1990, Leisler 1992, Jones 1999), many of the passerines being found in scrubby or reedy areas, and in some areas they may outnumber insectivorous resident species during certain times of year (vande Weghe 1979, Aidley & Wilkinson 1987, Rab0l 1987, Kelsey 1989). In contrast, few migratory species from the Palaearctic are seen in rainforest. They include the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Collared Flycatcher F. albicollis, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix and Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus, and in smaller numbers, other species such as Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos, Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. All these species are found chiefly around edges and openings, and are most numerous in more open woodland, as is the European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus (Monkkonen et al. 1992, Morel & Morel 1992). As expected, waterfowl and waders occupy coastal or inland wetlands.

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