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Figure 13.11 Diagrammatic representation of the main migration patterns within Africa, and between Africa and Europe. Examples include partial migrants.-► breeding area.

1. Within the northern tropics, breeding in the northern wet season. Examples: Grasshopper Buzzard Eagle Butastur rufipennis, White-throated Bee-eater Merops albicollis, African Collared Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea, Red-shouldered Cuckoo Shrike Campephaga phoenicea.

2. Within the southern tropical-temperate zone, breeding in the southern wet season. Examples: Fiscal Flycatcher Sigelus silens, Greater Striped Swallow Hirundo cucullata, Black Cuckoo Shrike Campephaga flava, Square-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus fossii. 3. Within both the northern and the southern tropics, migrating nearer to the equator for the dry season. Examples: Spotted Ground Thrush Zoothera guttata, African Striped Cuckoo Oxylophus levaillantia, Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis. 4. Transequatorial migration, breeding in the northern wet season. Examples: Abdim's Stork Ciconia abdimii, Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis, Plain Nightjar Caprimulgus inornatus, Dusky Lark Pinarocorys nigricans. 5. Transequatorial migration, breeding in the southern wet season. Examples: Openbill Stork (African Openbill) Anastomus lamelligerus, Standard-winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx longipennis, Pennant-winged Nightjar M. vexillarius. 6. Transequatorial migration with two populations, one breeding in the northern wet season and the other in the southern wet season. Examples: Black Kite Milvus migrans, Wahlberg's Eagle Aquila wahlbergi, Jacobin Cuckoo Oxylophus jacobinus. 7. Eurasian-northern tropics, breeding in the Eurasian warm season. Examples: Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta, European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator, European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur. 8. Eurasian-southern tropics, breeding in the Eurasian warm season. Examples: Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina, Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica, Common Swift Apus apus, Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus.

effects on climate and vegetation are greater. Correspondingly, smaller proportions of South American breeding species are known to undertake trans-equatorial migrations (although this may be partly due to inadequate information). As in Africa, most movements occur within the northern tropics, or within the southern tropical-temperate zones, with most species moving to lower latitude (wetter) areas for the non-breeding season (Levey & Styles 1992, Joseph 1997, Jahn et al. 2004). For some species, this can still involve movements of over 1000 km each

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