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These recoveries, which are selected as extreme examples from among many, refer mainly to birds that seemed to be on a different migration axis in different winters, being recovered in winter far to the east or west of where they were ringed in a previous winter. Other examples in Box 18.2.

a This movement is matched by at least three others almost as long, from Norway to eastern China, Finland to eastern China and eastern China to Sweden respectively.

Sources: Rydzewski (1939), Cornwallis & Townsend (1968), Newton (1972), Eriksson (1970b), Zink (1973-85), Troy (1983), Baumgartner & Baumgartner (1992), Cramp & Perrins (1994), Zink & Bairlein (1995), Glutz von Blotzheim et al. (1997), Yunick (1997), Brewer et al. (2000); plus records from Olaf Runde from the Norwegian Ringing Scheme and Thord Fransson from the Swedish Ringing Scheme.

Yunick (1997) gives additional information on the Pine Siskin, while Brewer et al. (2000) list 12 Redpolls that were trapped in different winters at places 1345-4836 km apart in North America.

These recoveries, which are selected as extreme examples from among many, refer mainly to birds that seemed to be on a different migration axis in different winters, being recovered in winter far to the east or west of where they were ringed in a previous winter. Other examples in Box 18.2.

a This movement is matched by at least three others almost as long, from Norway to eastern China, Finland to eastern China and eastern China to Sweden respectively.

Sources: Rydzewski (1939), Cornwallis & Townsend (1968), Newton (1972), Eriksson (1970b), Zink (1973-85), Troy (1983), Baumgartner & Baumgartner (1992), Cramp & Perrins (1994), Zink & Bairlein (1995), Glutz von Blotzheim et al. (1997), Yunick (1997), Brewer et al. (2000); plus records from Olaf Runde from the Norwegian Ringing Scheme and Thord Fransson from the Swedish Ringing Scheme.

Yunick (1997) gives additional information on the Pine Siskin, while Brewer et al. (2000) list 12 Redpolls that were trapped in different winters at places 1345-4836 km apart in North America.

Box 18.2 Other examples of individuals of irruptive species found in widely separated areas in different winters (December-February)

Bramblings Fringilla montifringilla ringed in Britain or Belgium in one winter were recovered as far east as Turkey and the Balkans in a later one, and Bramblings ringed in Switzerland in one winter were recovered at various localities from Ireland to Greece and Georgia in a later one (Jenni & Neuschulz 1985). Similarly, many Bramblings that were ringed in western Europe (Belgium-Germany-Switzerland) at 5°—15°E in one winter (November-February) were retrapped at a similar latitude at 60-70°E in a later winter (Zink & Bairlein 1995). These various records at similar latitude involved up to 65° of longitudinal displacement between one winter and another.

Of 17 long-distance recoveries of Eurasian Bullfinches Pyrrhula pyrrhula ringed in Finland in winter, nine were at 550-1000 km and eight at more than 1000 km away in a later winter. Fifteen were between south-southwest (Hungary and Poland) and east (Russia) of the ringing site (including two at 1920 km and 2350 km east in Siberia), one was north-northeast and another north-northwest. Another three ringed in Sweden were found at 475-1491 km, between northeast to southeast in a later winter (Cramp & Perrins 1994). These records involved longitudinal displacements of up to 45°.

Many Eurasian Siskins Carduelis spinus were ringed in western Europe (Belgium, France or Iberia) in one winter and recovered as far east as Turkey and the Balkans in a later winter, at places up to 2500 km apart; one ringed in Belgium in April was recaught about 3000 km to the southeast in Lebanon in the next November and another ringed in Sweden in October 1980 was recovered 3000 km to the southeast in Iran in January 1982 (Glutz von Blotzheim et al. 1997). These records involved longitudinal displacements of up to 35°.

Four Pine Siskins Carduelis pinus in North America were caught at localities 2055-3780 km apart in different winters, involving 15-44° of longitudinal displacement (Brewer et al. 2000).

Three Redpolls Carduelis flammea ringed in Fennoscandia are known to have occurred in different winters at places 1300, 1500 and 1800 km apart (Eriksson 1970b), and another caught in Hungary in February 1978 was recovered 3300 km to the east-northeast in Sverdlovsk in west Siberia in March 1979 (Glutz von Blotzheim et al. 1997). Even more remarkable are three movements between western Europe and China, all exceeding 8000 km as shown in Table 18.3. In North America, ten Common Redpolls Carduelis flammea were caught at localities 1345-3251 km apart in different winters, involving 8-43° of longitudinal displacement (Brewer et al. 2000).

Five Evening Grosbeaks Hesperiphona vespertina were caught at localities 925-3402 km apart in different winters, involving 2-42° of longitudinal displacement.

Many Redwings Turdus iliacus were ringed in Europe west of 10°E in one winter, and recovered east of 55°E in a later winter, at places more than 3000 km apart (Zink 1973-85). Of Redwings ringed in winter in Britain, dozens have been recovered in subsequent winters as far east as Italy, Greece and Turkey, and some as far east as Israel and Iran, at localities up to 5000 km and up to 50° of longitude apart (Milwright 2002). Even birds from the same brood have been recovered in widely separated localities in the same winter.

Many Fieldfares Turdus pilaris were found as far apart as Ireland and Italy, England and Turkey, or as Switzerland and Georgia, in different winters, at localities 2000-3000 km and up to 35° of longitude apart (Zink 1973-85, Milwright, in Wernham et al. 2002). Again, birds from the same brood have been recovered in widely separated areas in the same winter.

A Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus ringed in Switzerland in one winter was found 1300 km to the east in Romania in a later winter. Another Waxwing ringed in Poland one February was recovered in the next winter 4500 km further east in Siberia (Rydzewski 1939), a third was ringed in the Ukraine in one winter and recovered 6000 km to the east in Siberia the next, and a fourth was ringed in England one November and recovered about 3200 km to the east in October three years later. Many others were recorded west of 20°E in one winter and 45-65°E in another, at places more than 2000 km apart (Zink 1973-85). These recoveries involved some in which longitudinal displacements exceeded 50°. Other Bohemian Waxwings have been found at the same place at intervals of one, two or three years, in successive irruptions.

The extent to which irruptive finches wander for food is well illustrated by the North American Evening Grosbeak Hesperiphona vespertinus, which breeds in conifer forests and moves south or southeast in autumn. This species feeds mainly on large, hard tree fruits, but also visits garden feeding trays, a habit which makes it easy to catch. Over 14 winters, 17 000 individuals were ringed at a site in Pennsylvania. Of these, only 48 (0.003%) were recovered in the same place in subsequent winters, yet 451 others were scattered among 17 American States and four Canadian Provinces. Another 348 birds that had been ringed elsewhere were caught at this same locality, and these had come from 14 different States and four Provinces (D. H. Speirs, in Newton 1972). These recoveries show how widely individual grosbeaks range, and how weak is their tendency to return to the same place in later years.

Common Redpolls Carduelis flammea in North America showed another interesting pattern. Most birds were ringed at garden feeders, and Troy (1983) examined the distribution of all recoveries to 1978, arguing that because invasions of more southern parts of the range occurred every second year, this should be reflected in the recoveries (Table 18.4). In the northern parts of the winter range (north of the Canadian border), recoveries fell off steadily from one to five years after banding, as expected from mortality. However, in the southern parts (south of the Canadian border), recoveries peaked two years after banding, with a minor peak four years after, as expected from the biennial migration pattern. Some individuals were caught at sites more than 2000 km apart in different years; from birds ringed in winter in the eastern States, two were recaught in the breeding season in Alaska, and two others in a later winter in Alaska and Okhotsk (Siberia) respectively, the latter giving the straight-line distance of 10 200 km mentioned above. Most recoveries were of birds caught at different sites in different winters, but some were found at the same sites in successive winters (mainly in the north) or after gaps of two winters (mainly in the south). Similarly, among Black-capped Chickadees Parus atricapillus ringed in various winters, only 3-4% were retrapped one year later, but around 20% two years later, again reflecting the biennial pattern in movements. Such biennial site-fidelity has also been noted in Purple Finches Carpodacus purpureus in North Carolina (Blake 1967). Irruptive species also show greater turnover at particular sites within a winter than do non-irruptive ones (for Brambling Fringilla montifringilla see Browne & Mead 2003, Jenni & Neuschultz 1987; for Siskin Carduelis spinus see Senar et al. 1992), and some individuals may be continually on the move through the winter.

Table 18.4 Number of Common Redpolls Carduelis flammea ringed in winter in North America that were recovered in successive years after ringing

Years until recovery

Table 18.4 Number of Common Redpolls Carduelis flammea ringed in winter in North America that were recovered in successive years after ringing

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