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Baldwin et al. (1997) artificially enhanced benzyl acetone emissions in a wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), anticipating increased hawkmoth attraction. Instead, they observed elevated ovule destruction by hemipteran predators (Fig. 5.3). The risks of advertising to natural enemies could counter pollinator-mediated directional selection on fragrance and other floral attractants (Brody 1997). Alternatively, fragrance variation may be non-adaptive in many cases, and...

Honeybee vision and floral displays from detection to closeup recognition

In a social insect such as the honeybee, the survival of the colony depends on the success of its foragers. The bee optimizes its foraging success by returning to flowers of the species at which it has previously found food. This so-called flower constancy see Chittka et al. 1999 for references is based on the bee's capacity to learn and memorize specific flower signals Menzel et al. 1993 Menzel amp M ller 1996 Menzel 1999 and this volume and to discriminate among different species by their...