Flowers and pollen dispersal by individual pollinators

Individual flowers serve pollination by contributing to a plant's overall attractiveness to pollinators including both signaling and energetics and by controlling the transfer of pollen to and from each visitor. Because attraction typically involves all flowers open on a plant, we review this function when we discuss inflorescences below . Here, we consider the role of individual flowers in controlling pollen exchange with pollinators. Floral characteristics mediate this exchange by determining...

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Sphingid Flower

The birds learned the positions of the rewards in the array, irrespective of distance. Following the shift, all birds were worse at visiting the previously rewarded flowers, but this effect was much greater following the shift of 160 cm. Flower color pattern had no effect on post-shift performance. It appears, then, that the birds use different types of spatial information depending on the spatial scale - when the flowers are close together lt 40 cm , the birds use within-array cues to relocate...

Honeybee vision and floral displays from detection to closeup recognition

In a social insect such as the honeybee, the survival of the colony depends on the success of its foragers. The bee optimizes its foraging success by returning to flowers of the species at which it has previously found food. This so-called flower constancy see Chittka et al. 1999 for references is based on the bee's capacity to learn and memorize specific flower signals Menzel et al. 1993 Menzel amp M ller 1996 Menzel 1999 and this volume and to discriminate among different species by their...