Contents

List of contributors vii Preface x

1 The effect of variation among floral traits on the flower constancy of pollinators 1

Robert J. Gegear and Terence M. Laverty

2 Behavioral and neural mechanisms of learning and memory as determinants of flower constancy 21

Randolf Menzel

3 Subjective evaluation and choice behavior by nectar- and pollen-collecting bees 41

Keith D. Waddington

4 Honeybee vision and floral displays: from detection to close-up recognition 61

Martin Giurfa and Miriam Lehrer

5 Floral scent, olfaction, and scent-driven foraging behavior 83

Robert A. Raguso

6 Adaptation, constraint, and chance in the evolution of flower color and pollinator color vision 106

Lars Chittka, Johannes Spaethe, Annette Schmidt, Anja Hickelsberger

7 Foraging and spatial learning in hummingbirds 127

Susan D. Healy and T. Andrew Hurly

8 Bats as pollinators: foraging energetics and floral adaptations 148

York Winter and Otto von Helversen

9 Vision and learning in some neglected pollinators: beetles, flies, moths, and butterflies 171

Martha R. Weiss

10 Pollinator individuality: when does it matter? 191

James D. Thomson and Lars Chittka

11 Effects of predation risk on pollinators and plants 214 Reuven Dukas

12 Pollinator preference, frequency dependence, and floral evolution 237

Ann Smithson

13 Pollinator-mediated assortative mating: causes and consequences 259

Kristina Niovi Jones

14 Behavioural responses of pollinators to variation in floral display size and their influences on the evolution of floral traits 274

Kazuharu Ohashi and Tetsukazu Yahara

15 The effects of floral design and display on pollinator economics and pollen dispersal 297

Lawrence D. Harder, Neal M. Williams, Crispin Y. Jordan and William A. Nelson

16 Pollinator behavior and plant speciation: looking beyond the "ethological isolation" paradigm 318

Nickolas M. Waser

Index 33/

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