Field conditions

For plant species that produce rewards (nectar or pollen), four studies have quantified pollinator visitation rates for alternative floral pheno-types under field conditions and over a range of morph frequencies (Table 12.2). One study used the natural floral polymorphism observed in plant populations, and three studies included, either wholly or partly, manipulative experiments containing arrays of alternative floral phenotypes. Plants varied either in corolla color or in the presence of a corolla spot.

Table 12.2. The effects of frequency dependence and frequency independence on pollinator choice between different morphs in five plant species

Frequency Frequency

Table 12.2. The effects of frequency dependence and frequency independence on pollinator choice between different morphs in five plant species

Frequency Frequency

Plant

Variable trait

Pollinators

Reward"

Replicates6

dependence'

Independence'

Source

Clarkia gracilis

Corolla spot

Solitary bees

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