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euglossine bees, 85, 86 Euphydryas editha, learning ability, 177 eusocial hymenopterans, 172 evolution, floral, 237-56 Evolutionary Synthesis, plant speciation and, 319 exaptation, 106, 113-15, 116

fireflies, innate color preferences, 175 flavonoid coloration, 113-14 flesh fly, 225

flies vision and learning in, 171-84, I79(fig.) see also individual species flight distance, floral display size and,

284(fig.) energy costs of, in bats, 153-5 horizontal forward, 153 hovering, in bats, 154-5 speeds, in bats, 153 flight-cost hypothesis, 283 floral. . ., see also flowers floral adaptations, bats and, 148-67 floral displays attractiveness in, 281-4, 307-11 color change, 180 pattern vision and, 61-79 plant density and, 286-9 pollen dispersal and, 297-311 searching image hypothesis, 5-6 size, 274-91 floral diversity in communities, 15-16 selective foraging behavior, 13-14 floral polymorphisms, 237

evolutionary dynamics of, 255-6 floral scent, 83-97 emissions, 94, 96(fig.) odor space, 86-7 perception of, 87-91 pollinator-mediated selection, 95-7 response to, 91-7 variation, 85-6 see also olfaction flower(s)

choice, mechanistic model of, 36-8 color change, 180

color vision and, 115-18 diversity, 16

evolution of, 106-23, 113-15 and pollination syndrome, 107-10 evolution, 183-4, 237-56 individual pollinators and, 301-4 location of cues, 174-5 memory of, 132-40 multiple use of, 182 scent-marking at, 206-8 shape echolocation and, 162-4 evolution, 183-4 predation and, 229-30 specialization, constancy and, 226-8 switching, Darwin's interference hypothesis, 3-4

visitation patterns, energy requirements and, 181-2 see also floral . . . flower constancy, 12-13, 174 bees, 112(fig.) determinants of, 21-38 flower color and, 110-13, 174 flower specialization and, 226-8 plant speciation and, 322 switching costs and, 4 flycatchers, 216

food quality, assessment of predation risk and, 219(fig.) foraging areas, small, 192-3 bats, 148-67 costs, cutting, 159-65 energetics, 148-67 in field conditions, 246-8 honeybees, 27(fig.), 28(fig.), 29(fig.) hummingbirds, 127-45 memory dynamics, 34-6 mode, variation in, 195-9, 205 parasite-induced changes, 202 patch depression, 276-80 patterns, as frequency-dependent, 239-43 plant speciation and, 320-3 scent-driven, 83-97 strategies, 92-5, 203-5 foraging-mortality tradeoff, 220 fragrance, see floral scent frequency-dependent selection (FDS), 237-56 analyzing data, 239-41 as fiction, 252-6 in field conditions, 246-8 pollinator choice and, 240-1(fig.), 247(table)

predicted fitness relationships and, 253-5 in rewarding plant populations, 248-9 in unrewarding plant populations,

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