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artificial inflorescences, bumble bee behavior on, 245-6 Asclepias syriaca (milkweed), 216, 226 associative induction, 30-2 associative learning, spatial memory and, 26

assortative mating evolutionary significance of, 260-2 pollinator-mediated, 259-70 avoidance learning, predation risk assessment, 218-20

Baptisia, 269

pollination interactions, 326 Bateman's Index, 11(fig.), 111 Batesian mimicry, as frequency-dependent selection, 253-4 bats, 86, 148-67, 216 daily energy expenditure, 150-2, 151(fig.) foraging energetics, 148-67 energy costs of flight, 153-5 flight speeds, 153 glossophagine, 152(table) hovering flights, 154-5 responses to fragrance, 91 vision, 160-2 see also individual species Bauhinia, 160, 165

bees andrenid, 95

assessment of predation risk and, 218

choice behavior, 41-57

color vision system, 62-3

crab spiders and, 228(fig.)

dance, see dance, bee euglossine, 85, 86

evolution of flower-color preference, 119-23 flower color and, 111 green contrast, 68 movement patterns, 198(table) pattern vision, 61-79 pollinator individuality, 194 search times, 108 subjective evaluation by, 41-57 training patterns, 78 trait variability hypothesis, 7-8 ultraviolet vision, 115 see also individual species bee-eaters, 215

bee-wolf (Philanthus triangulum), 216-17 beetles, vision and learning in, 171-84 bilateral symmetry, bee pattern vision,

76(fig.) biosynthesis fragrance and, 83-5 volatile production in plants, 84(fig.) black-and-white stimuli, achromatic spatial cues in, 68-9 blowflies (Calliphora), 89 blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), search image hypothesis, 5 Bombacopsis quinatum, 160 Bombus, 216, 224 behavior on artificial inflorescences, 245-6

behavior on single artificial flowers, 241-3 captured, 223(fig.) color preferences of, 120(fig.) color vision, 118

Darwin's interference hypothesis, 2-4 evolution of flower-color preference, 119-23

flower color and, 107-10, 109(fig.) frequency-dependent visits by, 243-5 nectar concentration and, 51 photoreceptor values, 117(fig.) phylogeny, 120(fig.) pollination interactions, 326 pollinator individuality, 194 predation by crab spiders, 217(fig.) scent-marking, 206 sugar concentration and, 54 trait variability hypothesis, 7-8

trapline behavior, 196-7(fig.) vision and learning, 178-9 wing wear, 222 Bombus agrorum, 193 Bombus appositus, 267 Bombus bifarius, 195 Bombus ephippiatus, 193 Bombus fervidus, 55 Bombus flavifrons, 192 Bombus hypocrita, 119 Bombus ignitus, 119 Bombus impatiens color vision, 116 pollinator individuality, 194 sugar concentration and, 55 trait variability hypothesis, 7-8 visits to low-variance flowers, 56(fig.) Bombus lapidarius color vision, 116

evolution of flower-color preference, 119 Bombus lucorum, 119 Bombus monticola, 116 Bombus morio, 116 Bombus occidentalis color vision, 121

evolution of flower-color preference, 119 flower color and, 110 Bombus pratorum, 119 Bombus ternarius, 194 Bombus terrestris biogeography of color preferences, 122(fig.) color vision, 116, 121 flower color and, 108 on artificial inflorescences, 245-6 Bombus terrestris canariensis, 120, 121 Bombus terrestris dalmatinus, 119 Bombus terrestris sassaricus, 120 Bombus terrestris terrestris, 119 Bombus terrestris xanthopus, 120 Bombus vagans, 216 bombyliids, 173

innate color preferences, 175 bugs, predaceous, 215 bumble bee, see Bombus bumblebee-wolf, 217, 222 butterflies, 224 Darwin's interference hypothesis, 2-4 fragrance and, 92 noxious, 220 spectral range, 176

vision and learning in, 171-84, 179(fig.) see also individual species

Caladenia, 95

Calibri t. thalassinus, 129

Calliandra, 160 calliphorid flies, 175, 181 Capparis, 160

carabid beetle, innate color preferences, 175 Carassius auratus, 129 carpenter bees (Xylocopa micans), 54 carvone oxide, 86 Cepea snails, 238 chiropterophily, 149, 159 Choeronycteris, 165 choice behavior, 41-57 expected rewards, 49-55 memory dynamics and, 26-30 variation in nectar concentration, 54-5 visual angle and, 65(fig.) chromatic cues, 63-8 Cimicifuga simplex, 95 Cirsium palustre, 248, 249 Cirsium purpuratum, 283(fig.), 275(fig.) Clarkia, 267 Clarkia breweri, 85 Clarkia gracilis, 248 Cleome moritziana, 165, 164 Cobaea, bats and, 166

cognitive capacities, bee pattern vision, 77-8 coleopterans, 172

Colias butterflies, as solitary insects, 181 color, flower, see flowers, color color blindness, 120 color contrast, 62-3 color vision as adapted to flower color, 115-18 evolution of, 106-23 innate color preferences, 175-6 conditioned proboscis extension (CPE), 89,

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