behave on plants to maximize their rates of energy gain. Pollinators have been often used as model animals for studying "optimal foraging." In particular, behavioral ecologists have regarded a plant or an inflorescence as a "patch" and have made intensive efforts to test the prediction of the optimal patch-use model, originally formulated by Charnov (1976), the so-called marginal-value theorem. Despite numerous relevant studies on pollinator behavior, however (reviewed by Orth & Waddington 1997), the functional response of pollinators to floral display remains to be solved theoretically. Bearing this in mind, here we provide a theoretical analysis of the optimal pattern of pollinator responses to variation in floral display size and its influences on pollen transfer within and between plants. Based on the results, we consider how pollinators could affect the evolution of floral display size and other floral traits.
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