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destroyed the inflorescences. Baldwin et al. (1997) artificially enhanced benzyl acetone emissions in a wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), anticipating increased hawkmoth attraction. Instead, they observed elevated ovule destruction by hemipteran predators (Fig. 5.3). The risks of advertising to natural enemies could counter pollinator-mediated directional selection on fragrance and other floral attractants (Brody 1997). Alternatively, fragrance variation may be non-adaptive in many cases, and may persist in populations as a consequence of drift or phenotypic plasticity (Olesen & Knudsen 1994; Ackerman et al. 1997).

The evidence suggests that floral scent is best defined as a mosaic product of biosynthetic pathway dynamics, phylogenetic constraints, and balancing selection due to pollinator and florivore attraction.

Continued progress in fragrance research will be enhanced by: (1) standardization of analytical methods for comparative studies; (2) the establishment of a networked "scentbank" data base; (3) integrated quantitative and molecular analysis of fragrance variation; (4) the documentation of chemical and olfactory diversity in threatened tropical mutualisms; and (5) creative graphical and theoretical approaches to representing "perceptual odor space".

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant DEB-9806840. Special thanks to Nina Brown, Lars Chittka, Heidi Dobson, Laurel Hester, and Rachel Levin for editorial suggestions.

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