Orchid Care Tips

Orchid Growing Training Course

Get Instant Access

destroyed the inflorescences. Baldwin et al. (1997) artificially enhanced benzyl acetone emissions in a wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), anticipating increased hawkmoth attraction. Instead, they observed elevated ovule destruction by hemipteran predators (Fig. 5.3). The risks of advertising to natural enemies could counter pollinator-mediated directional selection on fragrance and other floral attractants (Brody 1997). Alternatively, fragrance variation may be non-adaptive in many cases, and may persist in populations as a consequence of drift or phenotypic plasticity (Olesen & Knudsen 1994; Ackerman et al. 1997).

The evidence suggests that floral scent is best defined as a mosaic product of biosynthetic pathway dynamics, phylogenetic constraints, and balancing selection due to pollinator and florivore attraction.

Continued progress in fragrance research will be enhanced by: (1) standardization of analytical methods for comparative studies; (2) the establishment of a networked "scentbank" data base; (3) integrated quantitative and molecular analysis of fragrance variation; (4) the documentation of chemical and olfactory diversity in threatened tropical mutualisms; and (5) creative graphical and theoretical approaches to representing "perceptual odor space".


This work was supported by National Science Foundation grant DEB-9806840. Special thanks to Nina Brown, Lars Chittka, Heidi Dobson, Laurel Hester, and Rachel Levin for editorial suggestions.


Ackerman JD, Mesler MR, Lu KL & Montalvo AM (1982) Food-foraging behavior of male Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae): vagabonds or trapliners? Biotropica 14:241-248

Ackerman JD, Melendez-Ackerman EJ & Salguero-Faria J (1997) Variation in pollinator abundance and selection on fragrance phenotypes in an epiphytic orchid. Am] Bot 84:1383-1390

Agelopoulos N & Pickett J (1998) Headspace analysis in chemical ecology: the effects of different sampling methods on the ratios of volatile compounds present in headspace samples. ] Chem Ecol 24:1161-1172 Anderson P, Larsson M, Löfqvist J & Hansson BS (1996) Plant odor receptor neurons on the antennae of the two moths Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum. Entomol Exp Appl 80:32-34.

Armbruster WS (1990) Estimating and testing the shapes of adaptive surfaces: the morphology and pollination of Dalechampia blossoms. Am Nat 135:14-31 Armbruster WS (1997) Exaptations link evolution of plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions: a phylogenetic inquiry. Ecology 78:1661-1672 Armstrong JE (1997) Pollination by deceit in nutmeg (Myristica insipida, Myristicaceae):

floral displays and beetle activity at male and female trees. Am] Bot 84:1266-1274 Aufsess A von (1960) Geruchliche Nahorientierung der Biene bei entomophilen und ornithophilen Blüten. Z vergl Physiol 43:469-498 Ayasse M, Engels W, Hefetz A, Tengö J, Lübke G & Francke W (1993) Ontogenetic patterns of volatiles identified in Dufour's gland extracts from queens and workers of the primitively eusocial halictine bee, Lasioglossum malachurum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Insectes Soc 40:41-58 Azuma H, Thien LB & Kawano S (1999) Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents. ] Plant Res 112:291-306

Azuma H, Toyota M, Asakawa Y, Yamaoka R, Garcia-Franco JG, Dieringer G, Thien LB & Kawano S (1997) Chemical divergence in floral scents of Magnolia and allied genera (Magnoliaceae). Plant Sp Biol 12:69-83 Baldwin IT, Preston C, Euler M & Gorham D (1997) Patterns and consequences of benzyl acetone floral emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants. ] Chem Ecol 23:2327-2343

Barkman TJ (2001) Character coding of secondary chemical variation for use in phylogenetic analyses. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:1-20 Beaman RS, Decker PJ & Beaman JH (1988) Pollination of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae). Am] Bot 75:1148-1162

Bestmann HJ, Winkler L & Helversen O von (1997) Headspace analysis of volatile flower scent constituents of bat-pollinated plants. Phytochemistry 46:1169-1172 Borg-Karlson A-K (1990) Chemical and ethological studies of pollination in the genus

Ophrys (Orchidaceae). Phytochemistry 29:1359-1387 Borg-Karlson A-K (1994) Dimethyl oligosulphides, major volatiles released from

Sauromatum guttatum and Phallus impudicus. Phytochemistry 35:321-323 Bradbury JW & Vehrencamp SL (1998) Principles of animal communication. Sinauer

Associates, Sunderland, MA Brantjes NBM (1978) Sensory responses to flowers in night-flying moths. In: Richards AJ

(ed) The pollination of flowers by insects, pp 13-19. Academic Press, London Brody AK (1997) Effects of pollinators, herbivores and seed predators on flowering phenology. Ecology 78:1624-1631 Bronstein JL (1995) The plant-pollinator landscape. In: Hansson L, Fahrig L & Merriam G (eds) Mosaic landscapes and ecological processes, pp 256-288. Chapman & Hall, London

Buck LB (1996) Information coding in the vertebrate olfactory system. Ann RevNeurosci


Chapman RF (1982) Chemoreception: the significance of receptor numbers. Adv Insect Physiol 16:247-356

Chapman RF (1998) The insects: structure and function, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Chittka L (1992) The colour hexagon: a chromaticity diagram based on photoreceptor excitations as a generalized representation of colour opponency.] Comp Physiol A


Chittka L, Geiger K & Kunze J (1995) The influences of landmarks on distance estimation of honeybees. Anim Behav 50:23-31 Croteau R & Karp F (1991) Origin of natural odorants. In: Müller PM & Lamparsky D

(eds) Perfumes - art, science and technology, pp 101-126. Elsevier, New York Curry KJ (1987) Initiation of terpenoid synthesis in osmophores of Stanhopea anfracta

(Orchidaceae): a cytochemical study. Am] Bot 74:1332-1338 Dafni A (1984) Mimicry and deception in pollination. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 15:259-278 Dafni A, Bernhardt P, Shmida A, Ivri Y, Greenbaum S, O'Toole C & Losito L (1990) Red bowl-shaped flowers: convergence for beetle pollination in the Mediterranean region. Israel] Bot 39:81-92 Dickens JC, Visser JH & Van der Pers JNC (1993) Detection and deactivation of pheromone and plant odor components by the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). ] Insect Physiol 39:503-516.

Dixon RA & Paiva NL (1995) Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7:1085-1097

Dobson HEM (1987) Role of flower and pollen aromas in host-plant recognition by solitary bees. Oecologia 72:618-623 Dobson HEM (1994) Floral volatiles in insect biology. In: Bernays E (ed) Insect-plant interactions, vol. 5, pp 47-81. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Dobson HEM, Arroyo J, Bergström LG & Groth I (1997) Interspecific variation in floral fragrances within the genus Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 25:685-706

Dodson C, Dressler R, Hills H, Adams R & Williams N (1969) Biologically active compounds in orchid fragrances. Science 164:1243-1249 Donaldson JMI, McGovern TP & Ladd TL Jr (1990) Floral attractants for Cetoniinae and

Rutelinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Econ Entomol 83:1298-1305 Dressler RL (1968) Pollination by euglossine bees. Evolution 22:202-210 Dudareva N & Pichersky E (2000) Biochemical and molecular genetic aspects of floral scents. Plant Physiol 122:627-633 Dudareva N, Piechulla B & Pichersky E (1999) Biogenesis of floral scents. Hort Rev


Dusenbery DB (1992) Sensory ecology: how organisms acquire and respond to information. WH Freeman, New York

Ecroyd CE (1996) The ecology of Dactylanthus taylorii and threats to its survival. NZJ Ecol 20:81-100

Eisikowitch D & Rotem R (1987) Flower orientation and color change in Quisqualis indica and their possible role in pollinator partitioning. Bot Gaz 148:175-179 Faber T, Joerges J & Menzel R (1999) Associative learning modifies neural representations of odors in the insect brain. Nature Neuro 2:74-78 Faegri K & van der Pijl L (1979) The principles ofpollination ecology, 3rd edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford

Fan R-J, Anderson P & Hansson BS (1997) Behavioural analysis of olfactory conditioning in the moth Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Exp Biol 200:2969-2976

Feinsinger P (1983) Coevolution and pollination. In: Futuyma DJ & Slatkin M (eds)

Coevolution, pp 282-310. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA Fleming TH, Tuttle MD & Horner MA (1996) Pollination biology and the relative importance of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators in three species of Sonoran Desert cacti. Southwest Nat 41:257-269 Gabel B, Thiery D, Suchy V, Marion-Poll F, Hradsky P & Farkas P (1992) Floral volatiles of Tanacetum vulgare L. attractive to Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. females. J Chem Ecol 18:693-701

Galen C (1983) The effects of nectar thieving ants on seed set in floral scent morphs of

Polemonium viscosum. Oikos 41:245-249 Galen C (1999) Flowers and enemies: predation by nectar-thieving ants in relation to variation in floral form of an alpine wildflower, Polemonium viscosum. Oikos 85:

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment