Figure 9.1. Single-trial color learning in butterflies, flies, and honeybees. For all three taxa, a single rewarded exposure to sucrose on a training color yielded a significant increase in choice of that color. Sp = spontaneous color choice; Tr = trained choice after one sucrose reward. Butterfly (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) data taken from Kinoshita et al. (1999); solid circle = yellow; open circle = red. Naïve and trained insects were offered four color choices. Fly (Lucilia cuprina, Calliphoridae) data taken from Fukushi (1989); solid circle = yellow; open circle = blue. Naïve and trained insects were offered four color choices. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) data taken from Menzel (1967); solid circle = violet; open circle = blue. Trained insects were offered two color choices, each of which received 50% of visits prior to training.
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