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Fig. 2.1. Foraging cycle in honeybees. (a) Flowers usually appear in patches of similar flowers. A bee departing from the hive will arrive at such a patch and make intrapatch choices at short intervals. Interpatch choices follow each other at longer intervals and require a decision between similar and different flowers. Intervals between bouts range among many minutes, hours, and days (Menzel 1985). (b) Working hypothesis of different memories as defined by the sequences of events during a natural foraging cycle. For more detailed explanation see text.

species, forcing them to make decisions between "same" and "different" flowers. Intervals of visits to individual flowers were counted for four different plant species, and it was found that the most frequent intervals are in the range of a few seconds (Menzel 1987: Fig. 1b). There will certainly be a great scattering of such intervals, depending on plant species, habitat, and many other ecological conditions, but as long as we do not have more complete data, I consider that intrapatch choice intervals are typically a few seconds. Choice intervals between different patches have not been

Fig. 2.2. Models of memory storage and memory retrieval as applied to foraging behavior in honeybees. (a) Memory storage is initiated by the associative acquisition process, which leads to an early form of STM lasting in the range of 1 min. The memory stages that follow (a late form of STM, MTM, and early and late forms of LTM) are predominantly arranged in sequence, but parallel processing has been shown for the transition from MTM to both forms of LTM (dotted and solid arrows). The memory stages are characterized by their time courses, their differential control of behavior, and their physiological substrates as described in the text.

Fig. 2.2. Models of memory storage and memory retrieval as applied to foraging behavior in honeybees. (a) Memory storage is initiated by the associative acquisition process, which leads to an early form of STM lasting in the range of 1 min. The memory stages that follow (a late form of STM, MTM, and early and late forms of LTM) are predominantly arranged in sequence, but parallel processing has been shown for the transition from MTM to both forms of LTM (dotted and solid arrows). The memory stages are characterized by their time courses, their differential control of behavior, and their physiological substrates as described in the text.

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