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Hydrophyllum capitatum, 300 Hyles, 91

Hylonycteris underwoodi, 158(fig.) Hymenoptera, 217

individuality learning-related, 199-201 in pollinators, 191-210 inflorescences, 304-11

bumble bee behavior on, 245-6 innate preferences, multiple flower use and, 182

insects non-hymenopteran, 172-4 qualities of, 182-3 interference hypothesis, Darwin's, 2-4 Ipomoea purpurea, 248, 249 Ipomopsis assortative mating, 261 pollination interactions, 326 Ipomopsis aggregata, 140, 268 foraging, 128

pollination interactions, 324-5 visual cues and, 130, 131 Ipomopsis arizonica, 325 Ipomopsis tenuituba, 268

pollination interactions, 324-5 visual cues and, 130, 131

jacamars, 216

Keckiella, 107

laboratory behavior, and pollinator field behavior, 252-3 ladybird larvae, 220 Lampornis clemenciae, memory for flower location, 133 lampyrids, innate color preferences, 175 Lapeirousia silenoides, 266 Lasius pallitarsis ant colonies, assessment of predation risk, 219(fig.) late short-term memory (lSTM), 32-3 Lavandula, 183 learning ability, 176-8, 180-1 assessment of predation risk, 218-20 beetles, 176-8 fly taxa, 177 hummingbirds, 127-45 mechanisms of, 21-38 neglected pollinators, 171-84 see also memory Leiophron pallipes, nectar availability and, 230

lekking hummingbirds, 132

lepidopterans, 172 learning ability, 177 spectral range, 176 Leptonycteris, 165

long-term memory (LTM), 33-4, 37 long-tongued flies, 173 Lonicera, 91

Lygus lineolaris, nectar availability and, 230

Macrocarpaea, 166 Macroglossum stellatarum, 177, 178 Magnolia, 87 Manduca, 90

marginal-value theorem, 275 megachiropterans, 149 memory associative learning and, 26 dynamics of, 26-31, 34-6 early short-term, 29-32 of flower locations, 132-40 formation, 29-30, 200 late short-term, 32-3 long-term, 33-4, 37 mechanisms of, 21-38 mid-term, 33 models, 28(fig.) navigational, 22-6 phases, 30-4 retrieval, 29-30, 29(fig.) short-term, 31, 279-80 spatial, 164-5, 279 working, 29 Merops apiaster, 217 Michelia, 87

microchiropterans, 149 mid-term memory (MTM), 33 milkweed (Asclepius syriaca), 216, 226 mimicry, Mullerian, 220 Mimulus, 328, 326 Mimulus cardinalis, 264 Mimulus lewisii, 264 Misumena vatia (crab spiders), 216 Monarda fistulosa, 306 monkeyflower, 326 moths, 216

vision and learning in, 171-84 Mucuna holtonii, 162-4, 163(fig.) Mullerian mimicry, 220 Musa, 160 muscid flies innate color preferences, 175 learning ability, 177 mushroom bodies, memory formation and, 200

navigational memories, structure of, 22-6 nectar availability of, 230 concentration of, 50-3, 54-5 costs, 44-7

energy densities, 155-9 low reward, 289

perceptual discrimination of, 280 pollinator economics, 298 Nemestrinidae, 173 Neobellieria bullata, 225 Neotropical orchids, 85 Nephila clavipes, 221 nested visual signals, 92 neural mechanisms, flower constancy and, 21-38 Nicotiana attenuata, 96

fragrance emissions, 96(fig.) Nigella arvensis, 115 non-hymenopteran insects, 172-4 nymphalids, spectral range of, 176

objective information, subjective evaluation of, 50-4 odor coding, 89-91 odor signal detection, 87-8 odor space, multidimensional, 86-7 Oenothera, nectar availability and, 230 olfaction, 83-97 attractiveness, relative, 161(fig.) cues, flower location and, 174-5 cutting foraging costs, 159-60 see also floral scent olfactory conditioning, 30

flies and, 177 olfactory receptors peripheral, 88-9 tuned to plant volatiles, 89 Ophrys, 95

orb-weaving spiders, 215 orchids, 85

spur length and, 230-1 Osmia lignaria, pollinator economics and, 300

pallitarsis ant colonies, 219(fig.) paper wasps, 226 parasitoids, 216 bumble bees and, 226 of flower-visiting animals, 215 foraging behavior and, 202 pasture rose (Rosa Carolina), 226 patch depression, 276-80 pea aphids, 220 Pelargonium sericifolium, 266 Penstemon, 107

Penstemon strictus movement patterns of bees, I98(table) pollinator individuality, 194 small foraging areas, 192-3 variation in foraging mode, 195 visit frequency, I93(fig.) Petunia, 86 Phallus impudicus, 92 Philanthus bicinctus, 217, 222 Philanthus triangulum, 216-17

predation by, 215 phlox family, plant speciation and, 324 Phlox pilosa, 249 phorid flies, 216 photoreceptors bumble bees, 117(fig.) honeybees, 62(fig.) Physalis pubescens, 226, 227(fig.) Pieris butterflies interindividual variance, 209 spectral range, 176 vision and learning, 179 Pieris rapae, as solitary insects, 181 plants as adaptive units, 26 assortative mating and, 264-9 density, evolution of floral display and, 286-9

effects of predation risk on, 214-31 manipulating pollinators of, 289-91 pollinator familiarity with characteristics, 205-6 populations, frequency-dependent selection in 248-52 speciation, pollinator behavior and, 318-30 see also flowers pleiotropy, 113-15, 106 Polemonium, 261 Polemoniumviscosum, 95

pollination interactions, 326 Polistes arizonensis, 226

tobacco budworms and, 227(fig.) pollen, 47-8, 53-4 dispersal, 297-311 export, attraction and, 309(fig.) movement, fragrance and, 92-5 targeting, assortative mating and, 261 pollination interactions, 324-7 pollination saturation, 287 pollination syndromes, flower color and, 107-10 pollinator(s) assortative mating, 259-70 attack rates on, 216-18 economics, pollen dispersal and, 297-311

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