Andersson S (1988) Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis

(Boraginaceae): causes and consequences. Oecologia 76:125-130 Bawa KS (1983) Patterns in flowering in tropical plants. In: Jones CE & Little RJ (eds) Handbook of experimental pollination biology, pp 394-410. Scientific & Academic Editions, New York

Benham BR (1969) Insect visitors to Chamaenerion angustifolium and their behaviour in relation to pollination. Entomologist 102:222-228 Best LS & Bierzychudek P (1982) Pollinator foraging on foxglove (Digitalispurpurea): a test of a new model. Evolution 36:70-79 Bosch M & Waser NM (1999) Effects of local density on pollination and reproduction in Delphinium nuttallianum and Aconitum columbianum (Ranunculaceae). Am]Bot 86:871-879

Brody AK & Mitchell RJ (1997) Effects of experimental manipulation of inflorescence size on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation in the hummingbird-pollinated plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 110:86-93 Brown MF & Demas GE (1994) Evidence for spatial working memory in honeybees (Apis mellifera).] Comp Psychol 108:344-352 Brown MF, Moore JA, Brown CH & Langheld KD (1997) The existence and extent of spatial working memory ability in honeybees. Anim Learn Behav 25:473-484 Broyles SB & Wyatt R (1997) The pollen donation hypothesis revisited: a response to

Queller. Am Nat 149:595-599 Charnov EL (1976) Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theor Popul Biol


Charnov EL, Orians GH & Hyatt K (1976) Ecological implications of resource depression. Am Nat 110:247 259 Chittka L, Waser NM & Thomson JD (1999) Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution. Naturwiss 86:313-329 Collevatti RG, Campos LAO & Schoereder JH (1997) Foraging behaviour of bee pollinators on the tropical weed Triumfetta semitriloba: departure rules from flower patches. Insectes Soc 44:345-352 Corbet SA (1990) Pollination and the weather. Israel] Bot 39:13-30 Corbet SA, Cuthill I, Fallows M, Harrison T & Hartley G (1981) Why do nectar-foraging bees and wasps work upwards on inflorescences? Oecologia 51:79-83 Cruden RW (1988) Temporal dioecism: systematic breadth, associated traits, and temporal patterns. Bot Gaz 149:1-15 Dafni A, Lehrer M & Kevan PG (1997) Spatial flower parameters and insect spatial vision.

Biol Rev Camb Phil Soc 72:239-282 Darwin CR (1862) On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized by insects. John Murray, London Darwin CR (1876) Cross and self fertilization in the vegetable kingdom. John Murray, London de Jong TJ, Klinkhamer PGL & van Staalduinen MJ (1992) The consequences of pollination biology for selection of mass or extended blooming. Funct Ecol 6:606-615

de Jong TJ, Waser NM & Klinkhamer PGL (1993) Geitonogamy: the neglected side of selfing. Trends Ecol Evol 8:321-325 Dreisig H (1995) Ideal free distributions of nectar foraging bumblebees. Oikos 72:161-172 Erickson EH & Buchmann SL (1983) Electrostatics and pollination. In: Jones CE & Little RJ (eds) Handbook of experimental pollination biology, pp 173-184. Scientific & Academic Editions, New York Fretwell SD & Lucas HL (1970) On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. Acta Biotheor 19:16-36 Galen C & Plowright RC (1985) The effects of nectar level and flower development on pollen carry-over in inflorescences of fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) (Onagraceae). Can] Bo 63:488-491

Geber MA (1985) The relationship of plant size to self-pollination in Mertensia cliata. Ecology 66:762-772

Gentry AH (1974) Flowering phenology and diversity in tropical Bignoniaceae. Biotropica 6:64-68

Giurfa M, Vorobyev M, Kevan P & Menzel R (1996) Detection of coloured stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts. J Comp Physiol A 178:699-709

Gori DF (1983) Post-pollination phenomena and adaptive floral changes. In: Jones CE & Little RJ (eds) Handbook of experimental pollination biology, pp 31-49. Scientific & Academic Editions, New York Gori DF (1989) Floral color change in Lupinus argenteus (Fabaceae): why should plants advertise the location of unrewarding flowers to pollinators? Evolution 43:870-881

Gould JL (1986) The locale map of honeybees do insects have cognitive maps? Science 232:861-863

Goulson D, Hawson SA & Stout JC (1998a) Foraging bumblebees avoid flowers already visited by conspecifics or by other bumblebee species. AnimBehav


Goulson DG, Stout JC, Hawson SA & Allen JA (1998b) Floral display size in comfrey, Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae): relationships with visitation by three bumblebee species. Oecologia 113:502-508 Harder LD (1983) Flower handling efficiency of bumblebees: morphological aspects of probing time. Oecologia 57:274-280 Harder LD (1986) Effects of nectar concentration and flower depth on flower handling efficiency of bumblebees. Oecologia 69:309-315. Harder LD & Barrett SCH (1995) Mating cost of large floral displays in hermaphrodite plants. Nature 373:512-515 Harder LD & Barrett SCH (1996) Ecology of geitonogamous pollination. In: Lloyd DG &

Barrett SCH (eds) Floral biology, pp 140-190. Chapman & Hall, New York Harder LD & Cruzan MB (1990) An evaluation of the physiological and evolutionary influences of inflorescence size and flower depth on nectar production. Funct Ecol


Harder LD & Wilson WG (1998) Theoretical consequences of heterogeneous transport conditions for pollen dispersal by animals. Ecology 79:2789-2807 Heinrich B (1975) Thermoregulation in bumblebees II. Energetics of warm-up and free flight. J Comp Physiol 96:155-166 Heinrich B (1976) The foraging specializations of individual bumblebees. Ecol Monogr 46:105-128

Heinrich B (1979a) Resource heterogeneity and patterns of movement in foraging bumblebees. Oecologia 40:235-245 Heinrich B (1979b) Bumblebee economics. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Hodges CM (1985) Bumblebee foraging: energetic consequences of using a threshold departure rule. Ecology 66:188 197 Iwasa Y, Higashi M & Yamamura N (1981) Prey distribution as a factor determining the choice of optimal foraging strategy. Am Nat 117:710-723 Iwasa Y, de Jong TJ & Klinkhamer PGL (1995) Why pollinators visit only a fraction of the open flowers on a plant: the plant's point of view.JEvolBiol 8:439-453 Kadmon R (1992) Dynamics of forager arrivals and nectar renewal in flowers of Anchusa stigosa. Oecologia 92:552-555

Kevan PG, Eisikowitch D, Ambrose JD & Kemp JR (1990) Cryptic dioecy and insect pollination in Rosa setigera Michx. (Rosaceae), a rare plant of Carolinian Canada. Biol J Linn Soc 40:229-244 Klinkhamer PG & de Jong TJ (1990) Effects of plant size, plant density, and sex differential nectar reward on pollinator visitation in the protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). Oikos 57:399-405 Klinkhamer PGL, de Jong TJ & Bruyn G-J (1989) Plant size and pollinator visitation in

Cynoglossum officinale. Oikos 54:201-204 Kunin WE (1993) Sex and the single mustard: population density and pollinator behavior effects on seed-set. Ecology 74:2145-2160 Kunin WE (1997) Population size and density effects in pollination: pollinator foraging and plant reproductive success in experimental arrays of Brassica kaber. JEcol 85:225-234

Laverty TM (1980) The flower-visiting behaviour of bumblebees: floral complexity and learning. CanJ Zool 58:1324-1335 Laverty TM (1994) Bumblebee learning and flower morphology. Anim Behav 47:531-545 Lehrer M & Bischof S (1995) Detection of model flowers by honeybees: the role of chromatic and achromatic contrast. Naturwiss 82:145-147 Lehrer M, Srinivasan MV & Zhang SW (1990) Visual edge detection in the honeybee and its chromatic properties. Proc R Soc Lond B 238:321-330 McNamara J & Houston A (1980) The application of statistical decision theory to animal behaviour. J Theor Biol 85:673-690 Menzel R, Geiger K, Chittka L, Joerges J, Kunze J & Müller U (1996) The knowledge base of bee navigation. J Exp Biol 199:141-146 Morris WF, Price MV, Waser NM, Thomson JD, Thomson B & Stratton DA (1994)

Systematic increase in pollen carryover and its consequences for geitonogamy in plant populations. Oikos 71:431-440 Morse DH (1986) Inflorescence choice and time allocation by insects foraging on milkweed. Oikos 46:229-236 Motro U & Shmida A (1995) Near-far search: an evolutionarily stable foraging strategy. J Theor Biol 173:15-22

Muenchow G & Delesalle V (1994) Pollinator response to male floral display size in two

Sagittaria (Alismataceae) species. Am J Bot 81:568-573 Nilsson LA (1988) The evolution of flowers with deep corolla tubes. Nature 334:147-149 Oberrath R & Böhning-Gaese K (1999) Floral color change and the attraction of insect pollinators in lungwort (Pulmonaria collina). Oecologia 121:383-391 Ohara M & Higashi S (1994) Effects of inflorescence size on visits from pollinators and seed set of Corydalis ambigua (Papaveraceae). Oecologia 98:25-30 Ohashi K (1998) Effects of floral display size on pollinator foraging behavior in Cirsium purpuratum (Asteraceae). PhD thesis, Kyushu University, Japan Ohashi K & Yahara T (1998) Effects of variation in flower number on pollinator visits in

Cirsium purpuratum (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 85:219-224 Ohashi K & Yahara T (1999) How long to stay on, and how often to visit a flowering plant? - a model for foraging strategy when floral displays vary in size. Oikos 86:386-392

Orth AI & Waddington KD (1997) The movement patterns of carpenter bees Xylocopa micans and bumblebees Bombus pennsylvanicus on Pontederia cordata inflorescences. J Insect Behav 10:79-86

Parker GA & Sutherland WJ (1986) Ideal free distributions when individuals differ in competitive ability phenotype limited ideal free models. Anim Behav 34:1222-1242

Perez SM & Waddington KD (1996) Carpenter bee (Xylocopa micans) risk indifference and a review of nectarivore risk-sensitivity studies. Am Zool 36:435-446 Pleasants JM & Zimmerman M (1990) The effect of inflorescence size on pollinator visitation of Delphinium nelsonii and Aconitum columbianum. Collect Bot 19:21-39 Pyke GH (1978a) Optimal foraging in bumblebees and coevolution with their plants. Oecologia 36:281-293

Pyke GH (1978b) Optimal foraging in hummingbirds: testing the marginal value theorem. Am Zool 18:739-752 Pyke GH (1979) Optimal foraging in bumblebees: rule of movement between flowers within inflorescences. Anim Behav 27:1167-1181 Pyke GH (1981a) Honeyeater foraging: a test of optimal foraging theory. Anim Behav 29:878-888

Pyke GH (1981b) Optimal foraging in hummingbirds: rule of movement between inflorescences. Anim Behav 29:889-896 Pyke GH (1982) Foraging in bumblebees: rule of departure from an inflorescence. Can] Zool 60:417 428

Pyke GH (1991) What does it cost a plant to produce floral nectar? Nature 350:58-59 Pyke GH & Cartar RV (1992) The flight directionality of bumblebees: do they remember where they came from? Oikos 65:321-327 Rademaker MCJ, de Jong TJ & Klinkhamer PGL (1997) Pollen dynamics of bumblebee visitation on Echium vulgare. Funct Ecol 11:554-563 Rathcke BJ (1992) Nectar distributions, pollinator behavior, and plant reproductive success. In: Hunter MD, Ohgushi T & Price PW (eds) Effects of resource distribution on animal-plant interactions, pp 113-138. Academic Press, New York Rathcke B & Lacey EP (1985) Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 16:179-214

Redmond D & Plowright CMS (1996) Flower revisitation by foraging bumblebees: the effects of landmarks and floral arrangement. ] Apic Res 35:96-103 Richards AJ (1986) Plant breeding systems. Allen & Unwin, London Robacker DC & Erickson EH (1984) A bioassay for comparing attractiveness of plants to honeybees.] Apic Res 23:199-203 Robertson AW (1992) The relationship between floral display size, pollen carryover and geitonogamy in Myosotis colensoi (Kirk) Macbride (Boraginaceae). Biol] Linn Soc


Robertson AW & Macnair MR (1995) The effects of floral display size on pollinator service to individual flowers of Myosotis and Mimulus. Oikos 72:106-114 Sakai S (1993) A model for nectar secretion in animal-pollinated plants. Evol Ecol


Schmid-Hempel P & Speiser B (1988) Effects of inflorescence size on pollination in

Epilobium angustifolium. Oikos 53:98-104 Sih A & Baltus MS (1987) Patch size pollinator behavior and pollinator limitation in catnip. Ecology 68:1679-1690 Snow AA, Spira TP, Simpson R & Klips RA (1996) Ecology of geitonogamous pollination. In: Lloyd DG & Barrett SCH (eds) Floral biology, pp 191-216. Chapman & Hall, New York

Srinivasan MV, Lehrer M & Horridge GA (1990) Visual figure-ground discrimination in the honeybee: the role of motion parallax at boundaries. Proc R Soc Lond B 238:331-350

Stephenson AG (1982) When does outcrossing occur in a mass-flowering plant? Evolution 36:762-767

Thomson JD (1988) Effects of variation in inflorescence size and floral rewards on the visitation rates of traplining pollinators of Aralia hispida. Evol Ecol 2:65-76 Thomson JD & Brunet J (1990) Hypothesis for the evolution of dioecy in seed plants.

Trends Ecol Evol 5:11-16 Thomson JD, Maddison WP & Plowright RC (1982) Behavior of bumblebee pollinators of Aralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae). Oecologia 54:326-336 Thomson JD, Peterson SC & Harder LD (1987) Response of traplining bumblebees to competition experiments: shifts in feeding location and efficiency. Oecologia


Thomson JD, Slatkin M & Thomson BA (1997) Trapline foraging by bumblebees. II.

Definition and detection from sequence data. Behav Ecol 8:199-210 Vrieling K, Saumitou-Laprade P, Cuguen J, van Dijk H, de Jong TJ & Klinkhamer PGL (1999) Direct and indirect estimates of the selfing rate in small and large individuals of the bumblebee pollinated Cynoglossum officinale L. (Boraginaceae). Ecol Lett 2:331-337

Willson MF & Price PW (1977) The evolution of inflorescence size in Asclepias

(Asclepiadaceae). Evolution 31:495-511 Yumoto T (1987) Pollination systems in a warm temperate evergreen broad-leaved forest on Yaku Island Japan. Ecol Res 2:133-146 Zimmerman M (1988) Nectar production, flowering phenology, and strategies for pollination. In: Lovett Doust J & Lovett Doust L (eds) Plant reproductive ecology, pp 157-178. Oxford University Press, New York


Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment