References

Abramson CI (1986) Aversive conditioning in honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Comp Psychol 100:108-116

Ambrose JT (1990) Birds. In: Morse RA & Nowogrodzki R (eds) Honey beepests, predators, and diseases, pp 243-160. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY Andersson S, Rydell J & Svensson MGE (1998) Light, predation and the lekking behaviour of the ghost swift Hepialus humuli (L.) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae). Proc R Soc Lond B 265:1345-1351 Armitage KB (1965) Notes on the biology of Philanthus bicinctus (Hymenoptera:

Sphecidae). J Kans Entomol Soc 38:89-100 Balderrama N, Nufiez J, Giurfa M, Torrealba J, De Albornoz EG & Almeida LO (1996) A deterrent response in honeybee (Apis mellifera) foragers: dependence on disturbance and season. J Insect Physiol 42:463-470 Balduf WV (1939) Food habits of Phymatapennsylvanica americana Melin (Hemip.). Can Entomol 71:66-75

Bernays EA (1989) Host range in phytophagous insects: the potential role of generalist predators. Evol Ecol 3:299-311 Bernays EA & Graham M (1988) On the evolution of host specificity in phytophagous arthropods. Ecology 69:886-892 Berrigan D (1991) Lift production in the flesh fly, Neobellieria (= Sarcophaga) bullata Parker. FunctEcol 5:448-456

Blackledge TA & Wenzel JW (1999) Do stabilimenta in orb webs attract prey or defend spiders? Behav Ecol 10:372-376 Caron DM (1990) Other insects. In: Morse RA & Nowogrodzki R (eds) Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases, pp 156-176. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY Caron DM & Ross KG (1990) Spiders and pseudoscorpions. In: Morse RA &

Nowogrodzki R(eds) Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases, pp 177-187. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY Cartar RV (1991) Colony energy requirements affect response to predation risk in foraging bumble bees. Ethology 87:90-96 Clark CW (1993) Dynamic models of behavior: an extension of life history theory. Trends Ecol Evol 8:205-209

Clark CW & Dukas R (1994) Balancing foraging and antipredator demands: an advantage of sociality. Am Nat 144:542-548 Craig CL (1994a) Limits to learning: effects of predator pattern and colour on perception and avoidance-learning by prey. Anim Behav 47:1087-1099 Craig CL (1994b) Predator foraging behavior in response to the perception and learning by its prey: interactions between orb-spinning spiders and stingless bees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:45-52

Craig CL & Bernard GD (1990) Insect attraction to ultraviolet-reflecting spider webs and web decorations. Ecology 71:616-623 Craig CL & Freeman CR (1991) Effects of predator visibility on prey encounter: a case study on aerial web weaving spiders. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 29:249-254 Craig CL, Weber RS & Bernard GD (1996) Evolution of predator-prey systems: spider foraging plasticity in response to the visual ecology of prey. Am Nat 147:205-229 Davies NB (1976) Prey selection and the search strategy of the spotted flycatcher

(Muscicapa striata): a field study on optimal foraging. Anim Behav 25:1016-1033 De Jong D (1990) Insects: hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees). In: Morse RA &

Nowogrodzki R(eds) Honey beepests, predators, and diseases, pp 135-155. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY Dixon AFG & Agarwala BK (1999) Ladybird-induced life-history changes in aphids. Proc

R Soc Lond B 266:1549-1553 Dukas R (1998a) Constraints on information processing and their effects on behavior.

In: Dukas R (ed) Cognitive ecology, pp 89-127. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Dukas R (1998 b) Evolutionary ecology of learning. In: Dukas R(ed) Cognitive ecology, pp

129-174. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Dukas R (1999) Ecological relevance of associative learning in fruit fly larvae. Behav Ecol

Sociobiol 45:195-200 Dukas R & Edelstein-Keshet L (1998) The spatial distribution of colonial food provisioners. J Theor Biol 190:121-134 Dukas R & Kamil AC (2000) The cost of limited attention in blue jays. Behav Ecol 11:502-506

Dukas R & Visscher PK (1994) Lifetime learning by foraging honeybees. Anim Behav 48:1007-1012

Evans HE & Eberhard JW (1970) The wasps. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI Evans HE & O'Neill KM (1988) The natural history and behavior of North American beewolves.

Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY Feener DH (1988) Effects of parasites on foraging and defense behavior of a termitophagous ant, Pheidole titanis Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 22:421-427 Folgarait PJ & Gilbert LE (1999) Phorid parasitoids affect foraging activity of Solenopsis richteri under different availability of food in Argentina. Ecol Entomol 24:163-173

Free JB (1987) Pheromones in social bees. Chapman & Hall, London Frisch K von (1967) The dance language and orientation of bees. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA

Fry CH (1983) Honeybee predation by bee-eaters, with economic considerations. Bee World 64:65-78

Geitzenauer HL & Bernays EA (1996) Plant effects on prey choice by a vespid wasp,

Polistes arizonensis. Ecol Entomol 21:227-234 Gilbert LE (1975) Ecological consequences of a coevolved mutualism between butterflies and plants. In: Gilbert LE & Raven PH (eds) Coevolution of animals and plants, pp 210-240. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX Gilbert LE (1983) Coevolution and mimicry. In: Futuyma DJ & Slatkin M (eds)

Coevolution, pp 263-281. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA Gilliam JF & Fraser DF (1987) Habitat selection under predation hazard: test of a model with foraging minnows. Ecology 68:1856-1862 Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids: behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ

Goldblatt JW & Fell RD (1987) Adult longevity of workers of the bumble bees Bombus fervidus (F.) and Bombus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Can] Zool

65:2349-2353

Gould JL (1987) Honey bees store learned flower-landing behaviour according to time of day. Anim Behav 35:1579-1581 Greco CF & Kevan PG (1995) Patch choice in the anthophilous ambush predator Phymata americana: improvement by switching hunting sites as part of the initial choice. Can ] Zool 73:1912-1917 Grostal P & Dick M (1999) Direct and indirect cues of predation risk influence behavior and reproduction of prey: a case for acarine interactions. Behav Ecol 10:422-427 Gwynne DT (1981) Nesting biology of the bumblebee wolf Philanthus bicinctus Mickel

(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Am Midl Nat 105:130-138 Harder LD (1983) Flower handling efficiency of bumble bees: morphological aspects of probing time. Oecologia 57:274-280 Heinrich B, Mudge PR & Deringis PG (1977) Laboratory analysis of flower constancy in foraging bumblebees: Bombus ternarius and B. terricola. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2:247-265

Inouye DW (1980) The effect of proboscis and corolla tube lengths on patterns and rates of flower visitation by bumblebees. Oecologia 45:197-201 Jennings HS (1906) Behavior of the lower organisms. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN

Knutson LV & Murphy WL (1990) Insects: Diptera (flies). In: Morse RA & Nowogrodzki R(eds) Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases, pp 120-134. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY

Land MF (1981) Optics and vision in invertebrates. In: Autrum H (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol. VII/6B, Invertebrate visual centers, pp 472-592. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Laverty TM & Plowright RC (1988) Flower handling by bumblebees: a comparison of specialists and generalists. Anim Behav 36:733-740 Lavigne RJ (1992) Ecology of Neoaratus abludo Daniels (Diptera: Asilidae) in south Australia, with notes on Neoaratus pelago (Walker) and Neoaratus rufiventris (Macquart). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 94:253-262 Lawton JH (1986) The effect of parasitoids on phytophagous insect communities. In: Waage J & Greathead D (eds) Insectparasitoids, pp 265-287. Academic Press, London

Lima SL (1990) Evolutionary stable antipredator behavior among isolated foragers: on the consequences of successful escape. ] Theor Biol 14:377-389 Lima SL (1998a) Nonlethal effects in the ecology of predator-prey interactions. BioSci

48:25-34

Lima SL (1998b) Stress and decision making under the risk of predation: recent developments from behavioral, reproductive, and ecological perspectives. Adv Study Behav 27:215-291 Lima SL & Dill LM (1990) Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Can] Zool 68:619-640 Liu L, Wolf R, Roman E & Heisenberg M (1999) Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies. Nature 400:753-756 MacFarlane RP & Pengelly DH (1974) Conopidae and Sacrophagidae (Diptera) as parasites of adult Bombinae (Hymenoptera) in Ontario. Proc Entomol Soc Ontario

105:55-59

Mallet J (1986) Gregarious roosting and home range in Heliconius butterflies. Nat Geog Res 2:198-215

Mallet J, Longino JT, Murawski D, Murawski A & Simpson de Gamboa A (1987) Handling effects on Heliconius: where do all the butterflies go?] Anim Ecol 56:377-386

Martin TE (1995) Avian life history evolution in relation to nest sites, nest predation, and food. Ecol Monogr 65:101-127 Metcalfe NB & Ure SE (1995) Diurnal variation in flight performance and hence potential predation risk in small birds. Proc R Soc Lond B 261:395-400 Miller RS & Gass CL (1985) Survivorship in hummingbirds: is predation important? Auk 102:175-178

Minckley R., Wcislo WT, Yanega D & Buchmann SL (1994) Behavior and phenology of a specialist bee (Dieunomia) and sunflower (Helianthus) pollen availability. Ecology

75:1406-1419

Morse DH (1979) Prey capture by the crab spider Misumena calycina (Arcaneae:

Thomisidae). Oecologia 39:309-319 Morse DH (1981) Prey capture by the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerck) (Thomisidae) on three common native flowers. Am Midl Nat 105:358-367 Morse DH (1986) Predation risk to insect foraging at flowers. Oikos 46:223-228 Morse RA & Nowogrodzki R (1990) Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases. Cornell

University Press, Ithaca, NY Nilsson LA (1988) The evolution of flowers with deep corolla tubes. Nature 334:147-149 Nilsson LA (1998) Deep flowers for long tongues. Trends Ecol Evol 13:259-260

Nonacs P & Dill LM (1990) Mortality risk vs. food quality trade-offs in a common currency: ant patch preferences. Ecology 71:1886-1892 Nonacs P & Dill LM (1991) Mortality risk versus food quality trade-offs in ants: patch use over time. Ecol Entomol 16:73-80 Papaj DR & Prokopy RJ (1989) Ecological and evolutionary aspects of learning in phytophagous insects. Ann Rev Entomol 34:315-350 Plowright RC & Owen RE (1980) The evolutionary significance of bumble bee color patterns: a mimetic interpretation. Evolution 34:622-637 Price PW, Bouton CE, Gross P, McPheron BA, Thompson JN & Weis AE (1980)

Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 11:41-65 Pyke GH (1979) Optimal foraging in bumblebees: rule of movement between flowers within inflorescences. Anim Behav 27:1167-1181 Quinn WG, Harris WA & Benzer S (1974) Conditioned behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:708-712 Rabinovich M & Corley JC (1997) An important new predator of honeybees: the robber fly Mallophora ruficauda Wiedemann (Diptera, Asilidae) in Argentina. Am Bee]

137:303-306

Robinson MH & Robinson B (1970) Prey caught by a sample population of the spider Argiope argentata (Araneidae) in Panama: a year's census data. Zool]Linn Soc

49:345-357

Rodd FH, Plowright RC & Owen RE (1980) Mortality rates of adult bumble bee workers

(Hymenoptera: Apidae). Can] Zool 58:1718-1721 Schmid-Hempel P (1991) The ergonomics of worker behavior in social hymenoptera. Adv

Study Behav 20:87-134 Schmid-Hempel P (1998) Parasites in social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ

Schmid-Hempel P, Muller C, Schmid-Hempel R & Shykoff JA (1990) Frequency and ecological correlates of parasitism by conopid flies (Conopidae, Diptera) in populations of bumblebees. Insectes Soc 37:14-30 Schmidt JO (1990) Hymenopteran venoms: striving toward the ultimate defense against vertebrates. In: Evans DL & Schmidt JO (eds) Insect defenses, pp 387-419. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY Seeley TD (1996) The wisdom of the hive. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Shykoff JA & Schmid-Hempel P (1991) Incidence and effects of four parasites in natural populations of bumble bees in Switzerland. Apidologie 22:117-125 Sih A (1998) Game theory and predator prey response races. In: Dugatkin LA & Reeve HK (eds) Game theory and animal behavior, pp 221-238. Oxford University Press, New York

Simonthomas RT & Simonthomas AMJ (1980) Philanthus triangulum and its recent eruption as a predator of honeybees in an Egyptian oasis. Bee World 61:97-107 Singer MC & Wedlake P (1981) Capture does affect probability of recapture in a butterfly species. Ecol Entomol 6:99-121 Smith BH, Abramson CI & Tobin TR (1991) Conditional withholding of proboscis extension in honeybees (Apis mellifera) during discriminative punishment. ] Comp Psychol 105:345-356 Strickler K (1979) Specialization and foraging efficiency of solitary bees. Ecology 60:988-1009

Svensson MGE, Rydell J & Brown R (1999) Bat predation and flight timing of winter moths, Epirrita and Operophtera species (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Oikos 84:193-198

Tinbergen N (1958) Curious naturalists. Basic Books, New York

Veasey JS, Metcalfe NB & Houston DC (1998) A reassessment of the effect of body mass upon flight speed and predation risk in birds. Anim Behav 56:883-889 Wasserthal LT (1993) Swing-hovering combined with long tongue in hawkmoths, an antipredator adaptation during flower visits. In: Barthlott W, Naumann CM, Schmidt-Loske K & Schuchmann KL (eds) Animal-plant interactions in tropical environments, pp 77-86. Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut, Bonn Wasserthal LT (1997) The pollinators of the Malagasy star orchids Angraecum sesquipedale, A. sororium and A. compactum and the evolution of extremely long spurs by pollinator shift. Bot Acta 110:343-359 Wasserthal LT (1998) Deep flowers for long tongues. Trends Ecol Evol 13:458-459 Willmer PG & Stone GN (1997) How aggressive ant-guards assist seed-set in Acacia flowers. Nature 388:165-167 Wolf TJ & Schmid-Hempel P (1989) Extra loads and foraging life span in honeybee workers. J Anim Ecol 58:943-954 Ydenberg RC (1998) Behavioral decisions about foraging and predator avoidance. In:

Dukas R (ed) Cognitive ecology, pp 343-378. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Ydenberg RC & Dill LM (1986) The economics of fleeing from predators. Adv Study Behav 16:229-249

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment