genetic variation is lost as a result of genetic drift.

effluent Waste material that is discharged into the environment, for example, from sewage outfalls and factory chimneys.

EIA See Environmental Impact Assessment.

EIL See economic injury level.

EIS See Environmental Impact Statement.

electrochemical sensor A sensor that uses electrodes specific to particular ions to determine the quantity of substances in solution.

electromagnetic energy (electromagnetic radiation) Energy propagated by vibrating electric and magnetic fields. It can be thought of as being in the form of waves or as streams of photons (units of light). The energy carried depends on the frequency. The frequency and wavelength are related by the equation:

Xv = c where c is the speed of light, X the wavelength, and v the frequency. The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from low-frequency radio waves to high-frequency gamma rays.

electromagnetic radiation See electromagnetic energy.

electromagnetic sense A sense used by some fish (particularly cartilaginous species) to detect subtle changes in magnetic impulse, which they use to locate prey. Some insects, e.g. fire ants, are also attracted to the electromagnetic fields produced by underground cables, which they subsequently attack.

electromagnetic spectrum See electromagnetic energy.

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