Contents

Preface page ix

Acknowledgements xii

Chapter 1.1 Phytoplankton 1

1.1 Definitions and terminology 1

1.2 Historical context of phytoplankton studies 3

1.3 The diversification of phytoplankton 4

1.4 General features of phytoplankton 15

1.5 The construction and composition of freshwater phytoplankton 24

1.6 Marine phytoplankton 34

1.7 Summary 36

Chapter 2.1 Entrainment and distribution in the pelagic 38

2.1 Introduction 38

2.2 Motion in aquatic environments 39

2.3 Turbulence 42

2.4 Phytoplankton sinking and floating 49

2.5 Adaptive and evolutionary mechanisms for regulating ws 53

2.6 Sinking and entrainment in natural turbulence 67

2.7 The spatial distribution of phytoplankton

2.8 Summary 90

Chapter 3. Photosynthesis and carbon acquisition in phytoplankton

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Essential biochemistry of photosynthesis

3.3 Light-dependent environmental sensitivity of photosynthesis

3.4 Sensitivity of aquatic photosynthesis to carbon sources

3.5 Capacity, achievement and fate of primary production at the ecosystem scale

3.6 Summary

Chapter 4. Nutrient uptake and assimilation in phytoplankton 145

4.1 Introduction 145

4.2 Cell uptake and intracellular transport of nutrients 146

4.3 Phosphorus: requirements, uptake, deployment in phytoplankton 151

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