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4.4 Nitrogen: requirements, sources, uptake and metabolism in phytoplankton 161

4.5 The role of micronutrients 166

4.6 Major ions 171

4.7 Silicon: requirements, uptake, deployment in phytoplankton 173

4.8 Summary 175

Chapter 5.1 Growth and replication of phytoplankton 178

5.1 Introduction: characterising growth 178

5.2 The mechanics and control of growth 179

5.3 The dynamics of phytoplankton growth and replication in controlled conditions 183

5.4 Replication rates under sub-ideal conditions 189

5.5 Growth of phytoplankton in natural environments 217

5.6 Summary 236

Chapter 6.1 Mortality and loss processes in phytoplankton 239

6.1 Introduction 239

6.2 Wash-out and dilution 240

6.3 Sedimentation 243

6.4 Consumption by herbivores 250

6.5 Susceptibility to pathogens and parasites 292

6.6 Death and decomposition 296

6.7 Aggregated impacts of loss processes on phytoplankton composition 297

6.8 Summary 300

Chapter 7. Community assembly in the plankton: pattern, process and dynamics 302

7.1 Introduction 302

7.2 Patterns of species composition and temporal change in phytoplankton assemblages 302

7.3 Assembly processes in the phytoplankton 350

7.4 Summary 385

Chapter 8. Phytoplankton ecology and aquatic ecosystems:

mechanisms and management 387

8.1 Introduction 387

8.2 Material transfers and energy flow in pelagic systems 387

8.3 Anthropogenic change in pelagic environments 395

8.4 Summary 432

8.5 A last word 435

Glossary

Units, symbols and abbreviations

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