J F M A M J Jasond

1 (a) The spectrum of the solar flux at ground level compared to that of the 'solar constant' at the top of the atmosphere; the visible wavelengths (light) are shown hatched. (b) Daily integrals of undepleted solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, shown as a function of latitude (degrees) and time of year in the northern hemisphere. The approximate match for the southern hemisphere is gained by displacing the horizontal scale by 6 months. Redrawn, with permission, from Reynolds (1997a).

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