How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Continue reading...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. Continue reading...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

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Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

Weaselly Distinguished Stoatally Different

All weasels have the sinuous physique common to the Mustelidae, the family of carnivores of which they are the smallest members. They have long, slender bodies, long necks, and short legs their heads are rather flattish and smoothly pointed, exactly suitable instruments for poking into every possible small hole. Indeed, their Latin name is said to be derived from their small stature and long, pointed shape Mustela means a mus (mouse) as long as a telum (spear). They have no apparent shoulders or hips, so the general impression is of a slim, furry tube ending in an excitable, bottlebrush tail. They have large rounded ears lying almost flat among the fur bright, beady, black eyes and very long, sensitive whiskers on their faces, and, like cats, short ones on their elbows. Their paws are furred between the pads (five on each foot) the claws are sharp, and not retractable. They swim well, climb trees easily, and run like small bolts of brown lightning.

Hemignathus lucidus bark feeder

Natural selection is constrained in what it can produce by what is currently available. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) of China is a large herbivore that eats bamboo shoots almost exclusively. These bamboos provide low-quality food. Most large mammal herbivores, such as horses, deer, and kangaroos, have long intestines and special fermentation mechanisms in the gut to allow maximum digestive efficiency (see Section 4.6) in contrast, carnivores such as cats and omnivores such as bears have relatively short guts. The giant panda probably evolved from bears in the Miocene about 20 million years ago (O'Brien et al. 1985a) and changed to a herbivorous diet. Because of its carnivore ancestry it has a short gut and cannot now make the evolutionary jump to the longer, more complex digestive system of herbivores. Hence the giant panda has one of the least efficient digestive systems known for a terrestrial vertebrate only 18 of the food is digested compared with 50-70 for horses,...

Defining Play A Hard Work

We have no doubt what play is, and we have few uncertainties when it comes to understanding when our cats, dogs, and children play. Yet when we check the extensive literature devoted to play, we discover there are as many definitions of play as there are authors who studied it (Fagen 1981, Martin and Caro 1985, Power 2000). The difficulty in finding an objective definition derives from the fact that we cannot describe a distinctive characteristic of play we can only state that play lacks certain characteristics that are typical of serious behavior.

Reticulate evolution and the domestic catwildcat assemblage

Driscoll et al. (2007) have referred to domestication of wild lineages as one of the more successful 'biological experiments' ever undertaken. Their analysis of a sample of 979 cats, including domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), Near Eastern wildcats (Felis silvestris libyca), central Asian wildcats (Felis silvestris ornata), southern African wildcats (Felis silvestris cafra), and Chinese desert cats (Felis silvestris bieti), revealed the geographic partitioning of genetic variability consistent with a Near Eastern origin for the domestic cat. Furthermore, the mtDNA sequence data collected by Driscoll et al. (2007) indicated a sharing of genotypes among the subspecies that had diverged c.230,000 ybp. This estimate is much more than an order of magnitude greater than the age of domestication estimated from archaeological finds (c.9,500 ybp see Vigne et al. 2004 for a discussion). Figure 5.5 Phylogenies for the assemblage that...

Foods Of Stoats And Common Weasels Introduced Into New Zealand

The stoats and common weasels transported from Britain to New Zealand in the nineteenth century joined a simple community of introduced mammals. The range of body sizes of prey available was different from anywhere in the northern hemisphere fewer small mammals of mouse size (0 to 50 g), and more of rat (80 to 200 g) and rabbit size (500 to 2,000 g). The only competing predators were feral cats (then still scarce), and the native morepork owls and bush falcons. So, the forests of late nineteenth-century New Zealand were not only well stocked with food for stoats, but also offered them shelter from the harrier hawks and ferrets that preferred more open country.

Chemical Plant Accident at Bhopal India

Various aspects of the Bhopal accident, including its effects on animals and plants, have been reported. The animal death toll caused by MIC in this accident was massive, numbering over 1000 domestic animals, including 240 cows, 280 buffaloes, 18 bullocks, 84 calves, 288 goats, 60 pigs, 12 horses, 99 dogs, 2 cats, and 3 chicken. More than 7000 animals were reported to have some symptoms of varying degrees. Autopsies of the animals showed swollen livers and lymph glands, bloated digestive tracts, enlarged blood vessels or edema, and congestion of the heart and kidney. As for the damage to plants, broadleaf trees such as Azadirachta indica and Ficus religiosa showed total defoliation within 1 km of the accident site. Plants with thicker leaves and shrubs were less affected. Reaction with the leaf surface was the main cause of damage to the trees, whereas stems or other hardy parts of the tree were not affected.

Hybridization Between Alien and Native Animals

Few cases of hybridization between aliens and natives are known among terrestrial vertebrates. Among mammals, hybridization occasionally occurs between domestic dogs (C. familiaris) and other canids, such as the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simiensis) (see, e.g., Andersone et al. 2002 Gottelli et al. 1994). Feral domestic cats (Felis catus), derived from the North African race of the wildcat (Felis sylvestris), have also hybridized with the Scottish race of the wildcat, which is the last remaining wild race of the species (Beaumont et al. 2001).

Phylogenetic Analysis in the Context of Emerging Infectious Disease Research

A researcher performing a single phylogenetic analysis makes a vast number of comparisons, thus evaluating simultaneously many alternative hypotheses. These hypotheses include the evaluation of pathways of transmission among several hosts and the polarity of the transmission events. For example, experimentalists report that small carnivores in Chinese markets have been exposed to SARS-CoV GUA03 and the virus can infect domestic cats MAR04 . On their own these data do not necessarily reconstruct the history of the zoonotic and genomic events that underlie the SARS epidemic.

The impact of woodland carnivores and omnivores

Carnivores and the larger omnivores play an important role in nutrient cycling and, as illustrated in Fig. 5.13, are probably crucial in regulating the size and nature of herbivore populations. In most European countries, and many other parts of the world, including much of North America, large carnivores have either been very greatly reduced in number or entirely eliminated. A number of factors such as change in habitat, food supply and competitors may partly account for the resultant highly undesirable increase in deer numbers seen around the world, but lack of predators is certainly a major contributory factor. Deer control now involves either fencing off the habitat to be protected, or shooting animals whose populations have become excessively large. This was not a problem when large carnivores were common to almost all forests. Those of earlier times were often quite remarkable. In the early Tertiary the fossil sabre-tooth tiger Smilodon of the northern hemisphere, which struck...

Controlling the herbivorehunter balance

Modern-day forest large carnivores notably now consist of a variety of big cats at low densities (from the Siberian tiger Panthera tigris altaica of Eurasian conifer forests weighing up to 300 kg to the diminutive 2-3 kg kodkod Oncifelis guigna of the temperate mixed forests of Chile and Argentina) and the wolf. The wolf Canis lupus was formerly the most common predator in the woodlands and grasslands of the world. Large populations are now largely restricted to a few relatively remote territories, such as Alaska, northern Canada and eastern Europe, although the natural range of the grey wolf is probably greater than that of any other living mammal, apart from humans. Wolves are highly intelligent social animals that travel very great distances in search of their prey, often migrating with them. Their packs have a well-defined hierarchy with the alpha-male, to which all the other individuals defer, at its apex. These large animals co-operate to bring down and kill animals that are...

The Alphaviruses Barmah Forest Virus BFV

Overall, seroepidemiological studies in wildlife (Aldred et al. 1990 Vale et al. 1991 Johansen et al. 2005b) have shown infection in mammals, including marsupials, but antibody prevalences reported have been generally quite low compared with those for RRV virus. Laboratory studies have ruled out some domestic and peridomestic mammals, cats, dogs and possums, cats, dogs as likely reservoirs, although possums have shown relatively high prevalence of antibodies for BFV in urban environments (Boyd et al. 2001 Kay et al. 2007).

Stoats in Southern Sweden

In the area where Sam Erlinge and his students (Erlinge et al. 1983, 1984) had observed stoats for years, the field voles showed a fairly predictable seasonal variation in numbers, but little variation across years (Chapter 7). Field voles, wood mice, water voles, and rabbits were the main prey available in the 40-km2 study area of open fields with interspersed woodlots and marshes. The predators hunting them were stoats and common weasels, foxes, feral cats, badgers, polecats, common buzzards, tawny owls, long-eared owls, and kestrels. Through a gargantuan effort of teamwork, Erlinge et al. (1983, 1984) documented the numbers and annual breeding success of most of these predators. They also estimated the densities of prey available to the predators and, roughly, how many of each prey were taken by which predators (see Table 7.4).

Evolutionary Adaptation to Predators and Parasitoids by Native Invertebrates

Tus exulans), hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), stoats (Mustela erminea), and feral cats (Felis catus). These predators have eliminated ground-dwelling wetas on mainland areas and near-shore islands, but a number of primarily tree-dwelling wetas (Hemideina spp.) have survived both on the mainland and on islands that have few or no introduced predators (Moller 1985). On islands with mammalian predators, wetas are strongly arboreal, whereas on islands without such predators they are commonly seen on the ground. In areas with mammalian predators, they also shelter in tree holes with constricted openings that prevent predator access, whereas on predator-free islands they commonly shelter in more open sites. These behavioral tendencies are apparently genetic, as they are maintained by animals in the laboratory (Rafanut 1995).

Stage two diagnose causes of population decline and test remedial action

For many threatened bird species on islands, it can be assumed a priori that known exotic mammal predators (often rats and feral cats) are likely to be affecting bird populations. On the basis of past experience, these species can be considered guilty until proven innocent, but data must be collected during any control program to evaluate its effect, and management should be modified accordingly. All management needs to be based on evidence.

The appetitive search

However, the effect may be inferred from experiments designed to determine the effect of infection on activity levels, although one significant problem with this approach is that human odour from the experimenter was unlikely to have been excluded from these experiments and therefore its potentially confounding influence cannot be ignored. In laboratory experiments, Berry et al. (1988) showed that Aedes trivittatus infected with Dirofilaria immitis had greatly increased flight activity. D. immitis is the common heart-worm of dogs, cats, foxes and wolves in the USA, where it occurs most frequently in the southern states. Aedes, Culex and Anopheles species of mosquitoes are all competent vectors of this parasite and A. trivittatus has been found to be naturally infected with D. immitis. Within 24-36 h after taking an infected blood meal, larvae are found in the Malpighian tubules of the mosquito vector. They reside there and develop into the infective L3 stage, which then migrate to the...

The dangers of a predatory lifestyle

Ross (1994) has described the fate of solitary predators, such as cougars. Cougars, also known as pumas or mountain lions (Felis concolor), are almost unique among solitary predators in that they consistently seek prey larger than themselves. African lions, hyenas, wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and wolves all practice cooperative hunting when attacking large prey. Most solitary hunters, such as weasels or foxes, generally prey on creatures smaller than themselves. Among the cats, leopards, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguars (Panthera onca), and lynxes also usually follow this pattern of attacking smaller animals.

Conservation in practice

The changes in the macropod fauna included the extinction of six species and the decline of 23 species, of which two died out completely on the mainland but still occur in Tasmania. The rates of decline are often difficult to estimate because the year in which the decline began is seldom known and indices of population size are seldom available. Land clearing and extensive sheep farming were in full swing in Australia by 1840 and declines in macropods were evident by the late 1800s. Many of the declines followed sweeping changes to habitat as land was cleared for agriculture or grazing by sheep modified the vegetation. The smaller macropods (< 5 kg) were the most affected, only one species (Macropus greyi) of the larger macropods going extinct. Calaby and Grigg (1989) emphasized the difficulty of determining the cause of declines retrospectively but considered that the evidence strongly suggested that the declines of nine species could be referred to the effects of land clearing,...

Game Preservation in Britain 18701914

Nowadays, game estates are fewer and smaller, and systematic predator control is practiced to only a fraction of its former extent. Pine martens, polecats, wild cats, buzzards, and hen harriers are all extending their ranges as, for reasons summarized above, the twentieth-century concept of conservation has slowly taken over from the nineteenth-century concept of game preservation (McDonald & Birks 2003). Old attitudes toward predators (such as the only good weasel is a dead one) are changing to a more informed and discriminating assessment long lines of decomposing vermin on gibbets are now seen as a bad advertisement for the keeper's work, which distracts attention from the real good that keepers do for conservation in the countryside.

A Proximity to the nearest neighbour

Figure 10.6 Exploration of patterns of spatial proximity can reveal some unexpected structure to what appears superficially to be a random gathering. In the case of farm cats, these graphs, based on G. Kerby's field study in Macdonald et al. (in press), reveal (A) that different age-sex classes of individuals positioned themselves at significantly different distances to their nearest neighbors and (B) that these positionings differed significantly depending on the age-sex class to which that neighbor belonged. AF adult female, AM adult male, JF juvenile female, JM juvenile male, KF female kitten, KM male kitten. Figure 10.6 Exploration of patterns of spatial proximity can reveal some unexpected structure to what appears superficially to be a random gathering. In the case of farm cats, these graphs, based on G. Kerby's field study in Macdonald et al. (in press), reveal (A) that different age-sex classes of individuals positioned themselves at significantly different distances to their...

The Partridge Survival Project

Studies of all the predators that kill partridges, and of the presumably serious consequences, were regarded as an important part of the Partridge Survival Project right from the beginning. Potts began the work convinced that this presumption was wrong, and set up the study expecting it to show that predation did not control the population density of partridges. Over an area of 13.1 km2 of the South Downs at North Farm, Sussex, Potts and his team monitored a continuous effort to control all predators of partridges other than the protected raptors. The main predators of partridge eggs, the carrion crows and magpies, were practically eliminated foxes were removed at an average rate of 3.2 adults per km2 per year, stoats at 3.7 per km2 per year, and feral cats at about 1 per km2 per year (Potts 1980). On other parts of the study area, predators were not systematically controlled.

Identifying The Individual

Figure 10.9 (A) The flow of rubbing between a group of four cats studied by Macdonald et al. (1987) was much less than that of grooming, and the two differed in that rubbing relationships tended to be highly asymmetric whereas grooming ones were symmetric. Furthermore, whereas the flow of grooming tended to mirror indices of association, those of rubbing and aggression did not, but the latter two were correlated with each other but not with grooming. (B) Superimposed on these patterns, relationships were modified by kinship and age for example, female 68 (in Kerby and Mac-donald's 1988 large colony) interacted more with her sisters than her adult daughters, and more with these 5 close kin than with the 12 other females available to her. Figure 10.9 (A) The flow of rubbing between a group of four cats studied by Macdonald et al. (1987) was much less than that of grooming, and the two differed in that rubbing relationships tended to be highly asymmetric whereas grooming ones were...

Feline immunodeficiency virus FIV

In 1987, the isolation of a T-lymphotropic virus possessing the characteristics of a lentivirus from pet cats in Davis, California was reported (Pedersen et al., 1987). The virus is a member of the family of retroviruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats. It shares many physical and biochemical properties with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and was therefore named feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Today FIV has been detected worldwide. The prevalences vary, ranging from 2 in Germany and 16 in the United States to 33 in the United Kingdom and 44 in Japan (Hartmann, 1998). FIV can be isolated from blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva of infected cats. The infection is much more common in males than females since the transmission mode is through bites inflicted during fights and biting is more apt to occur between male cats (Yamamoto et al., 1989). Veneral transmission from infected males to females is possible. In experimental studies,...

Extrapolation from Animals to Humans

Differences in the toxicity of specific substances between humans and laboratory animals cause considerable uncertainty in the application of animal data to humans. The differences can sometimes be isolated to differences in absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion. For example, 2-naphthalamine is converted to the carcinogen 2-naphthyl hydroxylamine by dogs and humans. This is excreted by the kidneys and causes bladder cancer. However rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs do not excrete this metabolite and do not get bladder cancer from the original compound. Ethylene glycol is metabolized by two pathways with the separate end products oxalic acid or CO2. Cats metabolize more of the ethylene glycol to oxalic acid, whereas rabbits produce more CO2. Consequently, ethylene glycol is more toxic to cats than to rabbits. The LD50 for dioxin (TCDD) is 5 mg kg in hamsters but only 0.001 mg kg in guinea pigs. This large range in toxicity between species has produced considerable...

Reticulate evolution and protozoan pathogens

Comparisons of lineages within T. gondii have detected significant divergence. In particular, comparisons of the pathogen assemblages found in South America with those from North America and Europe indicated a divergence from a common ancestor 106 ybp (Khan et al. 2007). These genomic comparisons also indicated that the divergent lineages were recently brought into contact, probably through the inadvertent transport of nonhuman hosts of T. gondii (i.e. rats, mice, and cats) on transatlantic slave ships (Lehmann et al. 2006 Khan et al. 2007). The evolutionary history of this pathogen clade has also involved hybridization between various lineages and, indeed, the formation of widespread hybrid pathogens (Boyle et al. 2006). Although the frequency of hybridization events (i.e., through sexual recombination) between divergent members of the T. gondii

The Consequences of Myxomatosis

King and Moors (1979a) suggested that one possible reason why myxoma-tosis had such different consequences for the two small mustelids was that it changed the balance of their relative advantages. When rabbits disappeared, the broad range of sizes of prey animals available to stoats suddenly narrowed. Stoats lost their main advantage over common weasels, the freedom of choice between large and small prey, and instead found themselves in fierce competition with common weasels for small rodents and with larger predators, such as foxes, feral cats, and raptors, for the remaining rabbits. Stoats lost against both the common weasels, which can reach rodents in their burrows, and the larger predators, which would not hesitate to attack a stoat. The balance of advantages was temporarily tipped in favor of common weasels.

Appendix Latin Names of Taxa Mentioned Only by Common Name in the Text and Tables

Tuberculata bear, black, Ursus americanus bear, brown, Ursus arctos bear, polar, Ursus maritimus beaver, mountain, Aplodontia rufa beech, southern, Nothofagus sp. beetle, vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis bellbirds, Anthornis melanura birch, Betula sp. buzzard, common, Buteo buteo cat, big, Panthera sp. cat, house, Felis sylvestris catus cat, wild, Felis sylvestris cats, Family Felidae cetaceans, Order Cetacea chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs chipmunks, Tamias sp. corvids, Family Corvidae cottonwood, Populus deltoides coyote, Canis latrans crow, carrion, Corvus corone curlew, Numenius sp. deer, Family Cervidae dormouse, garden, Eliomys sp. dotterel, NZ, Charadrius obscurus earthworm, Lumbricus sp. elephants, Family Elephantidae ermine, Mustela erminea

The population dynamics of small populations

Small Populations

This bird was once extremely common from Maine to Virginia. Being tasty and easy to shoot (and also susceptible to introduced cats and affected by conversion of its grassland habitat to farmland), by 1830 it had disappeared from the mainland and was only found on the island of Martha's Vineyard. In 1908 a reserve was established for the remaining 50 birds and by 1915 the population had increased to several thousand. However, 1916 was a bad year. Fire (a disaster) eliminated much of the breeding ground, there was a particularly hard winter coupled with an influx of goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (environmental uncertainty), and finally poultry disease arrived on the scene (another disaster). At this point, the remnant population was likely to have become subject to demographic uncertainty for example, of the 13 birds remaining in 1928 only two were females. A single bird was left in 1930 and the species became extinct in 1932.

Specialized Sciences The 1800s

Henry Chandler Cowles

Charles Darwin (Figure 14), who read widely, was already familiar with the argument for the importance of competition in nature before he read in 1837 Thomas R. Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population (1798, 5th edn. 1825). Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection focused attention on the struggle of organisms against biotic and abiotic environmental forces. In such a revolutionary book as On the Origin of Species (1859), one might expect Darwin to reject the balance of nature concept, since the struggle for existence can cause extinctions. However, his famous cats-mice-bees-clover story seemed to support the balance concept. It was Alfred Russel Wallace who, thinking of extinctions, asked ''Where is the balance ''

The Relation between Population Maintenance and Ecological Efficiency

Generally, prey convert energy from an inedible form, which the predators cannot use as a food supply, to a more digestible and convenient form. Plants turn sunlight into food for animals. Also, a population of mice can transform inedible grain into food for cats so that a steady-state population of mice can be considered to have an ecological efficiency from the standpoint of a steady-state population of cats. The ecological efficiency of the mice is defined as calories of mouse eaten per unit time by the cat population divided by calories of cat-inedible food, say grain, eaten per unit time by the mouse population. How we choose to measure ecological efficiency of any population or trophic level will determine the value observed and will affect the usefulness of the measurement. We might measure the loss of the mouse population to all predators rather than to cats alone. This would also permit a measurement of the ecological efficiency of the mice but it would have a different,...

Extinction and Extirpation due to Predation and Herbivory

More recently, predation and destruction of vegetation following the introduction of goats, pigs, dogs, cats, rats, mongooses, and other mammals to oceanic islands has also been the cause of numerous extinctions of plants and animals. Numerous island plants have been driven to extinction by habitat conversion and the impacts of introduced mammals. In the Hawaiian Islands, for example, 80-90 species of plants have become extinct and about 270 additional species are threatened or endangered (F. Kraus, personal communication). Many island reptiles have been driven to extinction by introduced predators (Honegger 1980 Case and Bolger 1991). In particular, the Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), which has been introduced to many Pacific and West Indian islands, has extirpated many snakes and lizards. Cats have had a serious impact on arboreal lizards on which mongooses cannot prey. Alien animals have had much less impact on native plants and animals in continental areas than in...

Why Is Biodiversity Important

Quito eradication project in Borneo to reduce the incidence of malaria among the Dayak people. They sprayed large amounts of the insecticide DDT to eradicate the mosquitoes. It was quite successful however, the DDT also killed a parasitic wasp that controlled thatch-eating caterpillars, causing the thatched roofs of the Dayak houses to cave in. Then, the DDT-poisoned insects were eaten by geckoes, which in turn were consumed by cats. As the cats began to die, the rat populations increased, and the Dayak were faced with outbreaks of syl-vatic plague and typhus.

Preservation of Species

The creation and management of multipleuse biological reserves, nature reserves, protected areas, and national parks are the cornerstone of in-situ conservation efforts. They address the loss and degradation of species' habitats. These areas are created to protect species and their habitats and, thereby, to hinder their extinction in the wild. Initially, the creation of such natural resource areas focused on protecting habitat for keystone species, such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Arctic tundra, or particularly charismatic vertebrate species such as elephants (Lox-odonta africana), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and the large cats and thereby, provide protection for the smaller, lesser-known plant and

Skull And Teeth

This feature is unusual among small mammals In general, only large mammals have crests on their skulls (Hildebrand 1974). For example, the large cats must have huge jaw muscles and need large crests to anchor them. Most small mammals need no crests. Even a wild cat the size of a house cat, which may weigh 10 times more than a weasel, can function well with no crests on its skull at all. Similarly, the skulls of adult red foxes show no large sagittal crests for jaw muscles. By contrast, the exceptionally well-developed temporalis muscles and tremendously powerful jaws of the large weasels need to be anchored to crests on the skull, just as in the large carnivores. With this equipment, a weasel can kill a mouse or bird in seconds or less. The big cats of Africa are usually regarded as the ultimate in predatory power but, in relation to their size, the weasels are equally formidable predators.


Wolves (Vulpes), cats (Felis), otters (Lutra), badgers (Meles), and bears (Ursus). Their teeth are specialized for biting and tearing flesh and they have well-developed claws. A few members of the order are omnivorous, e.g. bears. The giant panda (Ail-uropoda melanoleuca) is a herbivore.

African Elephant

Like all cats, the lion has acute senses. Its large eyes are positioned toward the front of its face so that it can estimate distances precisely. Its pupils are adapted for excellent night vision. Its funnel-shaped ears are designed to perceive the sounds emitted by its prey. It also has an organ above the roof of its mouth, called a Jacobson's organ, which assists in the detection of sexual odors. A distinctive feature of male lions is a thick mane. The mane makes males appear larger.

Wildlife In A City

Animals that live in the towns and cities don't have a large choice of things to feed on. There are fewer animals than in a woodland and far fewer places for them to live and produce young. Sparrows, pigeons, starlings move about on the ground looking for food that is dropped by humans (crisps, crumbs, bread). They are more likely to be eaten by cats.


Rabies is a fatal viral disease of animals that can also be transmitted to humans. Although it attacks primarily the central nervous system, infective particles are present in the saliva of rabid animals. Thus, it is most frequently transmitted by an animal bite, which injects the virus into the new host. About 35,000 cases a year are reported worldwide, all of them fatal, as there is no cure once symptoms develop. However, because of an effective vaccination program for dogs, cats, and other at-risk domestic animals and the availability of a vaccine for people bitten by wild animals or unvaccinated pets, there are typically fewer than five cases per year in the United States.


In the nonbreeding season crow activities tend to be centered around large communal roosts, which may contain tens of thousands of birds, to which they return in the evenings after searching for food during the day. Recent work by Ward et al. 34 suggests that roosting behavior may be an important component in regulating West Nile virus transmission because of the nocturnal feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes. Moreover, large roosts are often in mosquito-friendly habitats areas with large trees protected by wetlands. An extension of the model we have described involving simple Fickian diffusion might be used to incorporate the fact that in the final days of a crow's life after contracting the virus the crow is effectively a sitting duck for feeding mosquitoes. An additional compartment of nondiffusing crows which are in the final stages of disease might constitute an appropriate extension of the modeling described here. It should be noted that...


1999), and the cell-sparse stratum immediately superficial to layer VII contains many of the corticocortical axons originating in layers III, V, and VII (Reep & Goodwin 1988 Vandevelde et al. 1996). The developmental history of layer VII is of significance because of its relationship to the subplate, an early-developing structure which helps establish orderly topography in thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections (Allendoerfer & Shatz 1994). Most subplate cells are transient and die before birth. However, in rats and mice, layer VII represents that portion of the subplate cells which persists throughout life (Valverde et al. 1995 Price et al. 1997). In cats and primates the subplate survivors become the interstitial cells of Cajal, scattered throughout the white matter (Chun & Shatz 1989 Kostovic & Rakic 1990), and these participate in connections with other neurons (Shering & Lowenstein 1994).


Parallel evolution (parallelism) The development of similar features in closely related organisms as a result of strong selection in the same direction (see directional selection). This may occur between species of the same genus that are widely separated geographically but which live in similar environments. There are few examples of this phenomenon and some authorities deny its existence. A commonly quoted example is the similarity between Australian marsupials and placental mammals, which share a common ancestor in the distant past. Both groups have species that look and behave like wolves, cats, mice, moles, and anteaters. Compare convergent evolution.

Predator control

Islands, introduced rats RRattus spp., feral cats Felis catus, Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus, Stoat Mustela erminea, Mink M. vison, foxes Vulpes, and Alopex all are potential problem species (Merton 1978). On mainland or continental areas, predator control is usually a localized or a short-term option where it is best focused around areas where the focal species is most vulnerable, that is, nest-sites, roost sites, feeding areas, supplementary feeding stations, and release sites. Long-term predator control over large areas is usually not sustainable. However, in New Zealand biologists are experimenting with managed areas of up to 6000 ha in which smaller core areas are intensively managed. These areas are termed Mainland Islands. Within these areas large herbivores are shot from helicopters and the exotic rats and Brushtail Possums Trichosurus vulpecula are controlled by the aerial distribution of toxic baits, and in the intensively managed areas trapping grids are set...

Exotic animals

Exotic animals imported as pets, or for animal collections and zoos, occasionally escape or are deliberately released. Some soon die out but others may not only survive but also cause a major impact on the existing biota, as do exotic plants (see Section 5.6). A number of large cats including leopards and panthers have been set free in the UK so far there do not seem to have been any human tragedies as a result. Four centuries after being hunted to extinction the wild boar flourishes again in Sussex, and also in Kent, where it occurs along with the marsh frog which is much larger than our native common frog. The alien edible dormouse Glis glis (see Section 4.5.1) still flourishes in the Chilterns of southern England, a few animals having been released in 1902 in Tring Park, Hertfordshire, by the first Lord Rothschild, who also introduced the eastern grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis.

Reasons for rarity

Pigs, dogs, cats, goats, and black rats. By 1853, the woodhen was restricted to mountainous parts of the islands, and by 1920 the population was almost entirely restricted to one single mountain top of 25 ha, containing no more than 10 breeding territories. Miller found that the range of feral pigs did not overlap with the range of the woodhen and could have been the cause of decline through predation on nesting adults and eggs (Miller and Mullette 1985). After removal of the pigs, and a subsequent release of captive bred birds into other areas of the island soon filled the entire available habitat on the island. Declines due to introduced species illustrate the importance of co-evolutionary forces (Chapter 11) on species abundance. Many island birds, for example, are vulnerable to introduced ground predators because they have evolved adaptations in the absence of predators that become detrimental in presence of predators. These adaptations include flightless-ness, ground-nesting, and...


Forest fragmentation is held to have promoted increases in the numbers of predators and brood-parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds Molothrus ater. In eastern North America, as in Europe, many small generalist predators, which eat eggs and chicks, reach much higher densities in suburban and farming areas than in more natural areas (Wilcove et al. 1986, Small & Hunter 1988, Hoover et al. 1995), benefiting from the additional food provided by human activities. Such predators include mammals, notably Grey Squirrels Sciurus carolinensis, Raccoons Procyon lotor and feral cats, and birds such as American Crows Corvus brachyrhynchos and Blue Jays Cyanocitta cristata. All these species tend to concentrate their hunting along woodland edges (Gates & Gysel 1978, Whitcomb et al. 1981, Paton 1994).

Unexpected effects

For example, there are many islands mesopredators on which feral cats have been allowed to escape domestication and now threaten native prey, especially birds, with extinction. The 'obvious' response is to eliminate the cats (and conserve their island prey), but as a simple model developed by Courchamp et al. (1999) explains, the programs may not have the desired effect, especially where, as is often the case, rats have also been allowed to colonize the island (Figure 20.1). The rats ('mesopredators') typically both compete with and prey upon the birds. Hence, removal of the cats ('superpredators'), which normally prey upon the rats as well as the birds, is likely to increase not decrease the threat to the birds once predation pressure on the mesopredators is removed. Thus, introduced cats on Stewart Island, New Zealand preyed upon an endangered flightless parrot, the kakapo, Strigops habroptilus (Karl & Best, 1982) but controlling cats alone would have been risky, since their...


By far the most common examples of the eradication of pest species are found in the Pacific islands, New Zealand, and Australia, because these places have been subject to the invasion of exotic vertebrates. An important review of these is provided by Veitch and Clout (2002). Many islands were deliberately seeded with pigs, goats, and rabbits by sailors in the 1700s to provide a food source in case of shipwreck. These populations increased rapidly, changed the vegetation, and indirectly caused the extinction of many birds. Possums were introduced to New Zealand for commercial harvesting in the 1800s. Shipwrecks and ordinary landings resulted in the inadvertent introduction of rats and mice to most islands, and snakes to Guam and Mauritius. Control of rats was the motive for introducing cats (e.g. on Marion Island) and mongooses (e.g. Mauritius, some Hawaiian and Caribbean islands). Control of rabbits in New Zealand was the reason for introducing stoats (Mustella erminea) and ferrets...

Fleas and humanity

Humans have always coexisted with fleas. This coexistence is asymmetric, usually being favourable for fleas, but unfavourable for humans. Fleas can cause direct medical damage to humans and can serve as vectors for some diseases. They can also cause indirect damage to humans by parasitizing poultry and livestock and, thus, causing economic loss (e.g. Yeruham et al., 1989). Flea damage to human pets (mainly dogs and cats) also represents a serious veterinary problem. The ubiquity of the negative effect of fleas and their role in transmission of diseases have sometimes led to these creatures being blamed even when their negative role has not been explicitly established (e.g. Moynahan, 1987). The negative aspects of fleas as they relate to the economic and medical implications to human society in both urban and rural settings are briefly addressed in this chapter. Direct effect of flea parasitism on animals is related mainly to flea bites and parasitism of the stick-tight and...

Linnaean Hierarchy

Note that each line contains the name of a group (Animalia, Primates, and so forth). Such groups are called taxa (singular, taxon). Second, each taxon is associated with a rank category (kingdom, order, and so on). The taxon name refers to an actual group of organisms, while the categorical rank refers to the position of the taxon in the classification relative to other taxa. So, the Order Primates has a position in the hierarchy that is equivalent to the position of other orders, such as Carnivora (bears and lions), or Coleoptera (beetles). Third, each level, from lowest to highest, contains more of these groups of organisms. Mammalia contains many orders (Ungulata for hooved mammals, Carvinova for bears and cats, and so forth). From the layperson's point of view, taxa seem to have impossible names. That is because all of the names, not just the species names, are either Latin names or latinized Greek or modern names. Sometimes we recognize the Latin root (such as carnivore), but...


Order Carnivora is composed of predaceous mammals with large canine teeth and a car-nassial mechanism (specialized shearing blades formed by the occlusion of the last upper premolar and first lower molar). Interactions between the array of carnivore species and the single living human species are mixed. Many carnivores are trapped or hunted for their coats and flesh. Pinnipeds (walruses and seals) have been an important source of fur, food, oil, and ivory. For the last 11,000 years, populations of the wolf (Canis lupus) have been domesticated into more than 400 breeds of dog. Since at least 3500 B.C.E., descendants of the African wild cat (Felis sylvestris lybica) have been cultivated into thirty to forty breeds of domestic cat. Dogs and cats have been bred primarily to serve as human companions, though they are sometimes utilized to perform work and as a source of meat. The popularity of these animals as pets has a significant economic impact revenue is generated by the manufacturing...

Predators Of Weasels

In addition, weasels suffer from more natural hazards, including intense persecution from larger predators. Weasels of all species are small enough to be regarded as, or confused with, the normal prey of foxes, coyotes, feral cats, minks and ferrets, plus owls and hawks (Hellstedt & Kallio 2005). Weasels are believed to have somewhat distasteful flesh, so these predators do not necessarily eat a weasel once they have killed it, but that is hardly a comfort. The question is, do these encounters happen often enough to affect the weasel populations

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