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FIGURE 4.7 I (A) The bifurcation diagram generated by the LPA model (4.1) using the demographic CLS point estimates in Table 4.1 with /xfl = 0.96 is similar to that in Fig. 4.1. The total population size L + P + A of the attractor is plotted against the parameter cpa. (B) and (C) show the deterministic Lyapunov exponents and stochastic Lyapunov exponents as functions of cpa. Arrows indicate experimentally fixed values of cpa. (From B. Dennis, R. A. Desharnais, J. M. Cushing, Shandelle M. Henson, and R. F. Costantino, Estimating chaos and complex dynamics in an insect population, Ecological Monographs 71, No. 2 (2001), 277-303. Reprinted with permission from The Ecological Society of America.)

TABLE 4.3 I Deterministic Attractors Predicted by the LPA Model (4.1}«.

Treatment

Attractor

Deterministic LE

Stochastic LE

Control

Equilibrium

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