Develop Charisma and Become More Likable
The chemical structure of benzene was determined in 1834 by the German chemist Eilhardt Mitscherlich from the University of Berlin. Benzene was found to be a cyclic hydrocarbon with a molecular formula of C6H6, making it a highly unsaturated compound with an index of hydrogen deficiency equal to four. Benzene is rather stable and reacts preferentially by substitution of hydrogen for another group, such as a hydroxyl, rather than by addition reactions. Substituted benzene derivatives maintain their aromatic character, presumably due to the retention of their resonance distribution of electrons between the ring carbons. Benzene derivatives were originally termed aromatic hydrocarbons, due to the fragrant nature of some of these compounds. In physical appearance, benzene is a colorless liquid which has a characteristic sweet odor. Most humans can smell benzene at a threshold of 1.5-5 ppm in air and taste the compound at concentrations as low as 0.5-4.5 ppm
Recent interest in biodiversity valuation has increased in response to the threats it is facing. In this regard, the different criteria we presented have more or less potential to play a role in increasing the awareness about the relevance of conserving biodiversity. Esthetic appreciation of biodiversity has the caveat that it is, in some sense, biased toward the small subset of species that are considered 'charismatic' such as whales or birds. Ethic considerations offer the most comprehensive valuation of biodiversity however, it seems difficult that this type of philosophy will become internalized by a significant proportion of the humanity in the short term. Finally, the economic arguments are compelling and constitute a more tractable argument within the framework of formal markets. However, there are still a reduced number of cases where it has been possible to document with detail the economical value of the services provided by biodiversity. In the end, it is worth keeping in...
For those who doubt whether the twofold cost could ever be incurred, let us look at some experiments. In one experiment, the growth rate of a population of sexual mud snails (more on this charismatic mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, later) was significantly lower than the growth rate of a population of mud snails of the same species that happen to be able to reproduce asexually,22 indicating that traits facilitating asexu-ality have a high capacity to spread. In another study conducted on newly emerged adult psychid ('bag worm') moths, researchers could not find any difference in the total number of viable eggs that were produced by sexual females and by asexual females
Vying with the sea otter for the position of most charismatic otter in the world is the giant otter. Not many of them are left, but they are conspicuous, living in noisy groups in dramatic settings of rainforest, active only by day and endearingly inquisitive. Individual identity is easily established because of the animals' strikingly patchy throats, so there is less need to resort to radio-tracking equipment to study their behaviour and ecology. Several PhD theses have been written about giant otters, including the excellent studies by Nicole Duplaix, Christopher Schenck and Elke Staib, and enthusiastic research teams are dedicated to ensuring the species' survival.
Heterogeneity in detectability arises for many important reasons - behavior, breeding status social status, or physical characteristics. We consider a problem here where estimating species richness is formulated as a closed population model with heterogeneity. In that case, heterogeneity arises due to variations in song, physical appearance, and other characteristics of species. Another factor that leads to heterogeneity in studies that involve spatially organized trapping arrays is the situation of an individual's home range relative to the traps themselves. Here, we introduce several examples and address specific extensions of individual effects models for this phenomenon in Chapter 7.
We have learned that age- or stage-structured growth is common in most plant and animal populations, but the details of both survivorship and fertility differ greatly across species. For example, natural populations display many variations in survivorship, although a type III survivorship schedule is most common. Most of the charismatic megafauna of interest to conservation biologists and the general public shows age structured growth. Thus the techniques outlined in this chapter are necessary before we can make predictions about the potential for growth and recovery of an endangered population. We must understand the effects that age-specific survivorship and fertility have on the behavior of a population before we are in a position to implement a management plan that would actually be effective in promoting its long-term survival.
The picture is made more complex by the evidence for strong trophic cascades in marine as well as freshwater systems. Coastal ecosystems are frequently over-fished larger predators and grazers are removed by human hand. Removal of the 'charismatic megafauna' of coastal systems, together with beds of shellfish and other edible species, has changed the ecology of many lagoons and estuaries. Coastal ecosystems around the world have also been strongly modified by the removal of natural physical structures (mangroves and reefs) which confer resilience in the face of extreme events. We have removed both larger fish and benthic filter feeders from many systems compromising function and the ability to respond to changes in catchment loads. Overall there has been a consistent simplification of both physical and ecosystem structures (removal of reefs and macrobiota, simplification of food chains, etc.) and a trend toward more eutrophic (nutrient rich) and simplified systems dominated by...
In 1999, ecologist Simon Levin wrote that the central challenge of our time is embodied in the staggering losses, both recent and projected, of biological diversity at all levels, from the smallest organisms to charismatic large animals and towering trees. Largely through the actions of humans, populations of animals and plants are declining and disappearing at unprecedented rates these losses endanger our way of life and, indeed, our very existence. As we write this chapter five years later, the loss of species continues to escalate such that species extinctions may have ramifications for entire ecological communities and the ecological processes they support (Loreau et al. 2001 Kareiva and Levin 2003).
WWF assists only with technical input, and the entire program is executed by the local communities. The project is building on the will of the local people, under traditional authority, to protect their wildlife and other natural resources from over-harvesting. It is also building on their commitment to improve their livelihood via sustainable techniques, if they become available. Since the arrival of the community conservation project in this region, the local chief publicly vowed to support sustainable resource management and to protect charismatic species such as bonobos and forest elephants.
Although various high-profile examples of habitat management have been enacted specifically to benefit individual bird species, these are the exception and have usually been undertaken as crisis management for severely threatened birds, such as Kirtland's Warbler Dendroica kirtlandii, Corncrake Crex crex, Bittern Botaurus stellaris or Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis (Byelich et al. 1985 Kulhavy et al. 1995 Green and Gibbons 2000 Smith et al. 2000). In practice, most habitat management for birds is intended to maintain a characteristic habitat and its associated fauna and flora, taking particular account of the requirements of rare and charismatic species. Conflicts between requirements of birds and other species are rare, not least because most habitat management involves maintaining groups of species that have already coexisted under a previous management regime (see Section 14.2).
When advertising the attractions for eco-tourists of an island, shore or lake, the presence of otters of any species is a certain asset the animals now have a charisma that moves anyone with a love of nature, even the most experienced naturalists. Visitors to an area may not encounter the animal, but the knowledge of its presence alone is sufficient to attract, and otters are an asset in television documentaries. However, not so long ago, and to some extent today, the animals had or have more practical uses. The most important of these applications is their fur, of which more below, but there are other benefits that people derive from otters.
Seabirds are highly visible, charismatic predators in marine ecosystems that feed primarily or exclusively at sea. They have a range of relatively unique life-history characteristics associated with this predominantly marine lifestyle. Many of these characteristics are directly linked with having to forage over large distances to obtain sufficient food to breed.
There is probably no single aspect of the entire subject of bird migration that challenges our admiration for birds so much as the unerring certainty with which they cover thousands of miles of land and water to come to rest in exactly the same spot where they spent the previous summer or winter. (Frederick C. Lincoln 1935.)
A keystone is the wedge-shaped block at the highest point of an arch that locks the other pieces together. Its early use in food web architecture referred to a top predator (the starfish Pisaster on a rocky shore see Paine (1966) and Section 19.4.2) that has an indirect beneficial effect on a suite of inferior competitors by depressing the abundance of a superior competitor. Removal of the keystone predator, just like the removal of the keystone in an arch, leads to a collapse of the structure. More precisely, it leads to extinction or large changes in abundance of several species, producing a community with a very different species composition and, to our eyes, an obviously different physical appearance.
After centuries of killing predators to protect human interests, concern for predatory animals as individuals and for their own sake is a very recent idea in Europe (Reynolds & Tapper 1996). European settlers carried their cultural attitudes to North America, including the selective destruction of predators to favor game, although that policy was on its way out in the national parks of the United States by the 1930s (Dunlap 1999). Weasels are small and subject to little rancorous debate compared with large predators, such as wolves, coyotes, and pumas. People wishing the demise of predators and those wishing their protection seldom address weasels, for several reasons. Weasels may kill chickens and other small farm animals, but they do not have the potential to cause large-scale, high-profile damage as do big predators. In addition, weasels are not considered charismatic by most people and, consequently, have few high-profile defenders. Finally, weasels are widespread and generally...
Rivers are shaped by environmental factors that control essentially all aspects of the river's physical appearance, vary from place to place, and can be organized hierarchically according to spatial scale (Snelder and Biggs 2002). Climate, topography, geology, and vegetation cover are fixed environmental variables that the river cannot influence, and because climate tends to be expressed at a larger spatial scale than topography, followed by geology and vegetation, their influence is approximately hierarchical
The creation and management of multipleuse biological reserves, nature reserves, protected areas, and national parks are the cornerstone of in-situ conservation efforts. They address the loss and degradation of species' habitats. These areas are created to protect species and their habitats and, thereby, to hinder their extinction in the wild. Initially, the creation of such natural resource areas focused on protecting habitat for keystone species, such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Arctic tundra, or particularly charismatic vertebrate species such as elephants (Lox-odonta africana), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and the large cats and thereby, provide protection for the smaller, lesser-known plant and
At first sight nothing seems more obvious than that everything has a beginning and an end and that everything can be subdivided into smaller parts. Nevertheless, for entirely speculative reasons the philosophers of Antiquity, especially the Stoics, concluded this concept to be quite unnecessary. The prodigious development of physics has now reached the same conclusion as those philosophers, Empedocles and Democritus in particular, who lived around 500 BCE and for whom even ancient man had a lively admiration. (Svante Arrhenius, Nobel Lecture, 1903)
Pale Male and Lola, like Topsy, are mere chapters in the age-old story of human beings struggling for urban elbow-room with unpredictable non-human neighbours some charismatic, some repugnant, most (liked hardened urbanites the world over) persistent in the face of encroachment. For some at the posh co-op, the hawks had become a pest (much as the rebellious Topsy had become a nuisance to her owners), sending bird droppings and the dead carcasses of small prey spiraling down onto the heads of their well-coiffed human neighbours. For others, such as hawk defenders at the Times and across the boroughs (much like Topsy's trainer, who refused to aid or even attend her execution), the hawks were a forcible and welcome reminder that New York City continues to be a part of nature (whether it likes it or not) and the rightful habitat of more than just humans. Nor was this the first time the city was forced to confront the less appealing side of such impressive birds a few years ago, an...
Our studies require us to analyze and describe the changes that occur in the systems we are interested in, as they evolve with time. To accomplish this analysis properly we need to record specific features that characterize what is occurring during the evolutionary process. The features assigned for this purpose are referred to as the observables of the study system. For example, we distinguish the puppy from the old dog by changes in its physical appearance and its behavior. The changes in a heart's rhythm are recorded on special charts monitoring electrical signals. The changes occurring in a solution of ethyl acetate in water can be characterized by changes in the solution's acidity, by spectroscopic readings or by detection of the odor of acetic acid. To be as precise as possible in a scientific investigation it is necessary to assign numerical values to the characteristics that distinguish one state of a system from another.
Plants are the most likely candidates for most genetic engineering to support sustainable waste management. While microbial enzymatic activity is better adapted to mineralization of organic pollutants, microorganisms lack the degree of self-engineering that plants exhibit. Most animals, especially mammals, may be too mobile and too charismatic to genetically engineer for waste management based on the ethical values of most contemporary societies. In contrast, plants are easier to control and manage because the most likely candidates are rooted in place and propagation can be controlled with single-sex clones and harvesting before reproduction occurs. Fencing, netting, and other techniques control plant exposure to other organisms. Compared to animal husbandry, humankind has more experience in agricultural
Omnipresent dangers in the study of social behavior are the closely allied traps of teleology and unwitting anthropomorphism. Teleology, or the doctrine of final causes, infers purpose in nature (e.g., to infer the existence of a creator from the works of creation). The teleological conviction that mind and will are the cause of all things in nature is not within the scope of scientific method (Romanes 1881). In the context of animal behavior, teleological explanation would name and account for a behavior by its presumed ultimate effect (e.g., appeasement, submission, or punishment) and not by its proximate causes or physical appearance. It may be convenient to label as punishment the category of attack launched by a dominant meerkat on the only member of her group not to join in a fight with territorial trespassers. The danger lies in (inadvertently) interpreting the functional nuance of this convenient label as the proximate cause of the attacker's behavior. We know only that one...
Ecosystem services that provides a useful way of framing a discussion about how we might measure changes in the rates at which they are delivered. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment divides these services into supporting services and provisioning, regulating, and cultural services. Quantifying ecosystem services on a species-by-species basis is clearly an impossible task, particularly as many of the most important services are undertaken by microscopic species whose taxonomic status is unclear (Nee, 2004). Nevertheless, it is likely that different types of service will predominantly be undertaken by species on different trophic levels. For example, regulating services, such as climate regulation and water regulation and purification will be predominantly undertaken by interactions between species at the lowest trophic levels. In contrast, cultural services, such as recreation and tourism, as well as aesthetic and inspirational services, will often require ecosystems that contain a...
Our perspective on parasite virulence may well be biased by this scarcity of comparative data. Thus, we need not just more data on costs of infection, but data on a greater variety of taxa, both of parasites and hosts. Some taxa are simply more charismatic and likely to draw the attention of researchers (Plasmodium among parasites and especially lizards among hosts ), but a broader view will certainly lead to exciting and unexpected findings on the evolution of parasite virulence.
Umenting diversity through scientific publication. One basic activity is the description of newly discovered species. The systematist will describe a newly discovered species by examining collected specimens, characterizing their physical appearance, summarizing variation of individuals within and between populations, documenting the species' geographic range, and comparing the species to other species. Another basic activity is to publish a revision of a particular group. The systematist will attempt to examine specimens of all the species in a genus, family, or other group, study the history of names that have been applied to these specimens, adjust the classification as necessary, describe new species, and redescribe known species. Each species account would be similar to a basic species description. Yet another common activity is to publish a flora or fauna, a work that covers all the plant or animal species for a given region of the world. Such works may contain descriptions much...
Cockroaches are not generally considered a charismatic taxon species that are threatened with extinction are unlikely to rally conservationists to action. They are nonetheless an integral part of a stable and productive ecosystem in tropical rainforest and other habitats. Cockroaches deserve our consideration and respect for the range of services they perform and for their membership in an intricate web of interdependent and interacting flora, fauna, and microbes. Many cockroach species live in habitats of conservation concern and are threatened by canopy removal, urbanization, and agricultural practices. Philopatric species with naturally small population sizes and specific habitat requirements are particularly vulnerable to perturbations (Pimm et al., 1995 Tscharntke et al., 2002 Boyer and Rivault, 2003). These taxa are frequently wingless, and their consequent low dispersal ability makes them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and genetic bottlenecks. Several species of Australian...
The Power Of Charisma
You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.